RAK3172LoRaWAN-NetCore on Github

The source code for a late beta version of my .Net Core C# library for RAK3172 modules is now available on GitHub.

Using SerialDataReceivedEventHandler was causing memory management problems so the core command processor now runs in its own Thread.(Though I worry about the continuous System.TimeoutExceptions)

A sample application which shows how to connect using Over the Air Activation(OTAA) or Activation By Personalisation(ABP) then send and receive byte array/hexadecimal messages.

//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Copyright (c) September 2021, devMobile Software
//
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
//
//     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.
//
// Must have one of following options defined in the project\build definitions
//    PAYLOAD_BCD or PAYLOAD_BYTES
//    OTAA or ABP
//
// Optional definitions
//    CONFIRMED For confirmed messages
//		DEVEUI_SET
//
//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
namespace devMobile.IoT.LoRaWAN.NetCore.RAK3172
{
	using System;
	using System.IO.Ports;
	using System.Threading;


	public class Program
	{
		private const string SerialPortId = "/dev/ttyS0";
		private const LoRaClass Class = LoRaClass.A;
		private const string Band = "8-1";
		private const byte MessagePort = 10;
		private static readonly TimeSpan MessageSendTimerDue = new TimeSpan(0, 0, 15);
		private static readonly TimeSpan MessageSendTimerPeriod = new TimeSpan(0, 5, 0);
		private static Timer MessageSendTimer ;
		private const int JoinRetryAttempts = 2;
		private const int JoinRetryIntervalSeconds = 10;
#if PAYLOAD_BCD
		private const string PayloadBcd = "48656c6c6f204c6f526157414e"; // Hello LoRaWAN in BCD
#endif
#if PAYLOAD_BYTES
		private static readonly byte[] PayloadBytes = { 0x48, 0x65 , 0x6c, 0x6c, 0x6f, 0x20, 0x4c, 0x6f, 0x52, 0x61, 0x57, 0x41, 0x4e}; // Hello LoRaWAN in bytes
#endif

		public static void Main()
		{
			Result result;

			Console.WriteLine("devMobile.IoT.LoRaWAN.NetCore.RAK3172 RAK3712LoRaWANDeviceClient starting");

			Console.WriteLine($"Serial ports:{String.Join(",", SerialPort.GetPortNames())}");

			try
			{
				using (Rak3172LoRaWanDevice device = new Rak3172LoRaWanDevice())
				{
					result = device.Initialise(SerialPortId, 9600, Parity.None, 8, StopBits.One);
					if (result != Result.Success)
					{
						Console.WriteLine($"Initialise failed {result}");
						return;
					}

					MessageSendTimer = new Timer(SendMessageTimerCallback, device,Timeout.Infinite, Timeout.Infinite);

					device.OnJoinCompletion += OnJoinCompletionHandler;
					device.OnReceiveMessage += OnReceiveMessageHandler;
#if CONFIRMED
					device.OnMessageConfirmation += OnMessageConfirmationHandler;
#endif

#if DEVEUI_SET
					Console.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} DevEUI {Config.devEui}");
					result = device.DeviceEui(Config.devEui);
					if (result != Result.Success)
					{
						Console.WriteLine($"DevEUI failed {result}");
						return;
					}
#endif

					Console.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Class {Class}");
					result = device.Class(Class);
					if (result != Result.Success)
					{
						Console.WriteLine($"Class failed {result}");
						return;
					}

					Console.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Band {Band}");
					result = device.Band(Band);
					if (result != Result.Success)
					{
						Console.WriteLine($"Region failed {result}");
						return;
					}

					Console.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} ADR On");
					result = device.AdrOn();
					if (result != Result.Success)
					{
						Console.WriteLine($"ADR on failed {result}");
						return;
					}

#if CONFIRMED
               Console.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Confirmed");
               result = device.UplinkMessageConfirmationOn();
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Console.WriteLine($"Confirm on failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
#else
					Console.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Unconfirmed");
					result = device.UplinkMessageConfirmationOff();
					if (result != Result.Success)
					{
						Console.WriteLine($"Confirm off failed {result}");
						return;
					}
#endif

#if OTAA
					Console.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} OTAA");
					result = device.OtaaInitialise(Config.JoinEui, Config.AppKey);
					if (result != Result.Success)
					{
						Console.WriteLine($"OTAA Initialise failed {result}");
						return;
					}
#endif

#if ABP
               Console.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} ABP");
               result = device.AbpInitialise(Config.DevAddress, Config.NwksKey, Config.AppsKey);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Console.WriteLine($"ABP Initialise failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
#endif

					Console.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Join start");
					result = device.Join(JoinRetryAttempts, JoinRetryIntervalSeconds);
					if (result != Result.Success)
					{
						Console.WriteLine($"Join failed {result}");
						return;
					}
					Console.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Join started");

					Thread.Sleep(Timeout.Infinite);
				}
			}
			catch (Exception ex)
			{
				Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
			}
		}

		private static void OnJoinCompletionHandler(bool result)
		{
			Console.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Join finished:{result}");

			if (result)
			{ 
				MessageSendTimer.Change(MessageSendTimerDue, MessageSendTimerPeriod);
			}
		}

		private static void SendMessageTimerCallback(object state)
		{
			Rak3172LoRaWanDevice device = (Rak3172LoRaWanDevice)state;

#if PAYLOAD_BCD
			Console.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} port:{MessagePort} payload BCD:{PayloadBcd}");
			Result result = device.Send(MessagePort, PayloadBcd );
#endif
#if PAYLOAD_BYTES
			Console.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} port:{MessagePort} payload bytes:{Rak3172LoRaWanDevice.BytesToBcd(PayloadBytes)}");
         Result result = device.Send(MessagePort, PayloadBytes);
#endif
			if (result != Result.Success)
			{
				Console.WriteLine($"Send failed {result}");
			}
		}

#if CONFIRMED
		private static void OnMessageConfirmationHandler()
      {
			Console.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Send successful");
		}
#endif

		private static void OnReceiveMessageHandler(byte port, int rssi, int snr, string payload)
		{
			byte[] payloadBytes = Rak3172LoRaWanDevice.HexToByes(payload); // Done this way so both conversion methods tested

			Console.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Receive Message RSSI:{rssi} SNR:{snr} Port:{port} Payload:{payload} PayLoadBytes:{BitConverter.ToString(payloadBytes)}");
		}
	}
}

I have added XML Documentation comments which will need some rework, after I have “soak tested” the code for at least a week.

I have also added a method so the DevEUI can be set (intended for use after device firmware has been updated), fixed up my mistake with Binary Coded Decimal(BCD) vs. Hexadecimal strings.

I will also go back and apply the “learnings” from this refactoring to my other LoRaWAN module and platform libraries

SeeedLoRaE5-NetCore on Github

The source code of my .Net Core C# library for Seeed LoRa-E5 modules used in products like the LoRa-E5 Development Kit, LoRa-E5 mini and Grove-LoRa-E5 is now available on GitHub.

A sample application which shows how to connect using Over the Air Activation(OTAA) or Activation By Personalisation(ABP) then send and receive byte array/Binary Coded Decimal(BCD) messages .

//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Copyright (c) September 2021, devMobile Software
//
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
//
//     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.
//
// Must have one of following options defined in the nfproj file
//    PAYLOAD_BCD or PAYLOAD_BYTES
//    OTAA or ABP
//
// Optional definitions
//    CONFIRMED For confirmed messages
//    RESET for return device to factory settings
//
//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
namespace devMobile.IoT.NetCore.SeeedE5LoRa.LoRaWanDeviceClient
{
   using System;
   using System.Diagnostics;
   using System.Threading;

   using devMobile.IoT.LoRaWan;

   public class Program
   {
      private const string SerialPortId = "/dev/ttyS0";
      private const string Region = "AS923";
      private static readonly TimeSpan JoinTimeOut = new TimeSpan(0, 0, 20);
      private static readonly TimeSpan SendTimeout = new TimeSpan(0, 0, 15);

      private const byte MessagePort = 15;

#if PAYLOAD_BCD
      private const string PayloadBcd = "010203040506070809";
#endif
#if PAYLOAD_BYTES
      private static readonly byte[] PayloadBytes = { 0x09, 0x08, 0x07, 0x06, 0x05, 0x04, 0x03, 0x02, 0x01 };
#endif

      public static void Main()
      {
         Result result;

         Debug.WriteLine("devMobile.IoT.SeeedE5LoRaWANDeviceClient starting");

         try
         {
            using (SeeedE5LoRaWANDevice device = new SeeedE5LoRaWANDevice())
            {
               result = device.Initialise(SerialPortId, 9600);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Initialise failed {result}");
                  return;
               }

#if CONFIRMED
               device.OnMessageConfirmation += OnMessageConfirmationHandler;
#endif
               device.OnReceiveMessage += OnReceiveMessageHandler;
#if RESET
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Reset");
               result = device.Reset();
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Reset failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
#endif

               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Region {Region}");
               result = device.Region(Region);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Region failed {result}");
                  return;
               }

               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} ADR On");
               result = device.AdrOn();
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"ADR on failed {result}");
                  return;
               }

               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Port {MessagePort}");
               result = device.Port(MessagePort);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Port on failed {result}");
                  return;
               }

#if OTAA
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} OTAA");
               result = device.OtaaInitialise(Config.AppEui, Config.AppKey);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"OTAA Initialise failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
#endif

#if ABP
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} ABP");
               result = device.AbpInitialise(Config.DevAddress, Config.NwksKey, Config.AppsKey);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"ABP Initialise failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
#endif

               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Join start Timeout:{JoinTimeOut.TotalSeconds} Seconds");
               result = device.Join(true, JoinTimeOut);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Join failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Join finish");

               while (true)
               {
#if PAYLOAD_BCD
                  Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Send Timeout:{SendTimeout.TotalSeconds} Seconds payload BCD:{PayloadBcd}");
#if CONFIRMED
                  result = device.Send(PayloadBcd, true, SendTimeout);
#else
                  result = device.Send(PayloadBcd, false, SendTimeout);
#endif
#endif

#if PAYLOAD_BYTES
                  Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Send Timeout:{SendTimeout.TotalSeconds} Seconds payload Bytes:{BitConverter.ToString(PayloadBytes)}");
#if CONFIRMED
                  result = device.Send(PayloadBytes, true, SendTimeout);
#else
                  result = device.Send(PayloadBytes, false, SendTimeout);
#endif
#endif
                  if (result != Result.Success)
                  {
                     Debug.WriteLine($"Send failed {result}");
                  }

#if LOW_POWER
                  Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Sleep");
                  result = device.Sleep();
                  if (result != Result.Success)
                  {
                     Debug.WriteLine($"Sleep failed {result}");
                     return;
                  }
#endif

                  Thread.Sleep(60000);

#if LOW_POWER
                  Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Wakeup");
                  result = device.Wakeup();
                  if (result != Result.Success)
                  {
                     Debug.WriteLine($"Wakeup failed {result}");
                     return;
                  }
#endif
               }
            }
         }
         catch (Exception ex)
         {
            Debug.WriteLine(ex.Message);
         }
      }

#if CONFIRMED
      static void OnMessageConfirmationHandler(int rssi, double snr)
      {
         Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Send Confirm RSSI:{rssi} SNR:{snr}");
      }
#endif

      static void OnReceiveMessageHandler(int port, int rssi, double snr, string payloadBcd)
      {
         byte[] payloadBytes = SeeedE5LoRaWANDevice.BcdToByes(payloadBcd);

         Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Receive Message RSSI:{rssi} SNR:{snr} Port:{port} Payload:{payloadBcd} PayLoadBytes:{BitConverter.ToString(payloadBytes)}");
      }
   }
}

RAK811LoRaWAN-NetCore on Github

The source code of my .Net Core C# library for RAKWireless RAK811 modules used in products like the PiSupply IoT LoRa Node pHat for Raspberry PI is now available on GitHub.

A sample application which shows how to connect using Over the Air Activation(OTAA) or Activation By Personalisation(ABP) then send and receive byte array/Binary Coded Decimal(BCD) messages .

 //---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Copyright (c) Setpember 2021, devMobile Software
//
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
//
//     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.
//
//  PAYLOAD_BCD vs. PAYLOAD_BCD
//  OTAA vs. ABP
//  CONFIRMED
//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
namespace devMobile.IoT.NetCore.Rak811.LoRaWanDeviceClient
{
   using System;
   using System.IO.Ports;
   using System.Threading;
   using System.Diagnostics;

	using devMobile.IoT.NetCore.Rak811.LoRaWan;

	public class Program
   {
      private const string SerialPortId = "/dev/ttyS0";
      private const string Region = "AS923";
      private static readonly TimeSpan JoinTimeOut = new TimeSpan(0, 0, 10);
      private static readonly TimeSpan SendTimeout = new TimeSpan(0, 0, 20);
      private const byte MessagePort = 1;
#if PAYLOAD_BCD
      private const string PayloadBcd = "48656c6c6f204c6f526157414e"; // Hello LoRaWAN in BCD
#endif
#if PAYLOAD_BYTES
      private static readonly byte[] PayloadBytes = { 0x48, 0x65, 0x6c, 0x6c, 0x6f, 0x20, 0x4c, 0x6f, 0x52, 0x61, 0x57, 0x41, 0x4e}; // Hello LoRaWAN in bytes
#endif

      public static void Main()
      {
         Result result;

         Debug.WriteLine("devMobile.IoT.NetCore.Rak811.Rak811LoRaWanDeviceClient starting");

         Debug.WriteLine($"Ports :{String.Join(",", SerialPort.GetPortNames())}");

         try
         {
            using (Rak811LoRaWanDevice device = new Rak811LoRaWanDevice())
            {
               result = device.Initialise(SerialPortId, 9600, Parity.None, 8, StopBits.One);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Initialise failed {result}");
                  return;
               }

#if CONFIRMED
               device.OnMessageConfirmation += OnMessageConfirmationHandler;
#endif
               device.OnReceiveMessage += OnReceiveMessageHandler;

               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Region {Region}");
               result = device.Region(Region);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Region failed {result}");
                  return;
               }

               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} ADR On");
               result = device.AdrOn();
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"ADR on failed {result}");
                  return;
               }

#if CONFIRMED
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Confirmed");
               result = device.Confirm(LoRaConfirmType.Confirmed);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Confirm on failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
#else
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Unconfirmed");
               result = device.Confirm(LoRaConfirmType.Unconfirmed);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Confirm off failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
#endif

#if OTAA
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} OTAA");
               result = device.OtaaInitialise(Config.AppEui, Config.AppKey);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"OTAA Initialise failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
#endif

#if ABP
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} ABP");
               result = device.AbpInitialise(DevAddress, NwksKey, AppsKey);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"ABP Initialise failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
#endif

               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Join start Timeout:{JoinTimeOut.TotalMilliseconds}mSec");
               result = device.Join(JoinTimeOut);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Join failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Join finish");

               while (true)
               {
#if PAYLOAD_BCD
                  Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Send Timeout:{JoinTimeOut.Seconds}s port:{MessagePort} payload BCD:{PayloadBcd}");
                  result = device.Send(MessagePort, PayloadBcd, SendTimeout);
#endif
#if PAYLOAD_BYTES
                  Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Send Timeout:{JoinTimeOut.Seconds}s port:{MessagePort} payload Bytes:{BitConverter.ToString(PayloadBytes)}");
                  result = device.Send(MessagePort, PayloadBytes, SendTimeout);
#endif
                  if (result != Result.Success)
                  {
                     Debug.WriteLine($"Send failed {result}");
                  }

                  // if we sleep module too soon response is missed
                  Thread.Sleep(new TimeSpan(0, 0, 5));

                  Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Sleep");
                  result = device.Sleep();
                  if (result != Result.Success)
                  {
                     Debug.WriteLine($"Sleep failed {result}");
                     return;
                  }

                  Thread.Sleep(new TimeSpan(0, 5, 0));

                  Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Wakeup");
                  result = device.Wakeup();
                  if (result != Result.Success)
                  {
                     Debug.WriteLine($"Wakeup failed {result}");
                     return;
                  }

                  // if we send too soon after wakeup failure
                  Thread.Sleep(new TimeSpan(0, 0, 5));
               }
            }
         }
         catch (Exception ex)
         {
            Debug.WriteLine(ex.Message);
         }
      }

#if CONFIRMED
      static void OnMessageConfirmationHandler(int rssi, int snr)
      {
         Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Send Confirm RSSI:{rssi} SNR:{snr}");
      }
#endif

      static void OnReceiveMessageHandler(int port, int rssi, int snr, string payloadBcd)
      {
         byte[] payloadBytes = Rak811LoRaWanDevice.BcdToByes(payloadBcd);

         Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Receive Message RSSI:{rssi} SNR:{snr} Port:{port} Payload:{payloadBcd} PayLoadBytes:{BitConverter.ToString(payloadBytes)}");
      }
   }
}

If you are using this library in an AS923 Region you will need to use AS923_HACK

.NET Core RAK811 LoRaWAN library Part2

Nasty OTAA connect

After getting basic connectivity for my IoT LoRa Node pHAT for Raspberry Pi test rig sorted I wanted to see if I could get the device connected to The Things Network(TTN) via the RAK7246G LPWAN Developer Gateway on my bookcase.

IoT LoRa Node pHAT for Raspberry Pi mounted on a Raspberry PI3

My Over the Air Activation (OTAA) implementation is very “nasty” I have assumed that there would be no timeouts or failures and I only send one BCD message “48656c6c6f204c6f526157414e” which is “hello LoRaWAN”.

The code just sequentially steps through the necessary configuration to join the TTN network with a suitable delay after each command is sent. I had some problems with re-opening the serial port if my application had previously failed with an uncaught exception. After some experimentation I added some code to ensure the port was closed when an exception occurred.

//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Copyright (c) September 2021, devMobile Software
//
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
//
//     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.
//
//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
namespace devMobile.IoT.NetCore.Rak811.NetworkJoinOTAA
{
	using System;
	using System.Diagnostics;
	using System.IO.Ports;
	using System.Threading;

	public class Program
	{
		private const string SerialPortId = "/dev/ttyS0";
		private const string AppEui = "...";
		private const string AppKey = "...";
		private const byte MessagePort = 1;
		private const string Payload = "A0EEE456D02AFF4AB8BAFD58101D2A2A"; // Hello LoRaWAN

		public static void Main()
		{
			string response;

			Debug.WriteLine("devMobile.IoT.NetCore.Rak811.NetworkJoinOTAA starting");

			Debug.WriteLine(String.Join(",", SerialPort.GetPortNames()));

			try
			{
				using (SerialPort serialPort = new SerialPort(SerialPortId))
				{
					// set parameters
					serialPort.BaudRate = 9600;
					serialPort.DataBits = 8;
					serialPort.Parity = Parity.None;
					serialPort.StopBits = StopBits.One;
					serialPort.Handshake = Handshake.None;

					serialPort.ReadTimeout = 5000;

					serialPort.NewLine = "\r\n";

					serialPort.Open();

					// clear out the RX buffer
					response = serialPort.ReadExisting();
					Debug.WriteLine($"RX :{response.Trim()} bytes:{response.Length}");
					Thread.Sleep(500);

					// Set the Working mode to LoRaWAN
					Console.WriteLine("Set Work mode");
					serialPort.WriteLine("at+set_config=lora:work_mode:0");
					Thread.Sleep(5000);
					response = serialPort.ReadExisting();
					response = response.Trim('\0');
					Debug.WriteLine($"RX :{response.Trim()} bytes:{response.Length}");

					// Set the Region to AS923
					Console.WriteLine("Set Region");
					serialPort.WriteLine("at+set_config=lora:region:AS923");
					response = serialPort.ReadLine();
					Debug.WriteLine($"RX :{response.Trim()} bytes:{response.Length}");

					// Set the JoinMode
					Console.WriteLine("Set Join mode");
					serialPort.WriteLine("at+set_config=lora:join_mode:0");
					response = serialPort.ReadLine();
					Debug.WriteLine($"RX :{response.Trim()} bytes:{response.Length}");

					// Set the appEUI
					Console.WriteLine("Set App Eui");
					serialPort.WriteLine($"at+set_config=lora:app_eui:{AppEui}");
					response = serialPort.ReadLine();
					Debug.WriteLine($"RX :{response.Trim()} bytes:{response.Length}");

					// Set the appKey
					Console.WriteLine("Set App Key");
					serialPort.WriteLine($"at+set_config=lora:app_key:{AppKey}");
					response = serialPort.ReadLine();
					Debug.WriteLine($"RX :{response.Trim()} bytes:{response.Length}");

					// Set the Confirm flag
					Console.WriteLine("Set Confirm off");
					serialPort.WriteLine("at+set_config=lora:confirm:0");
					response = serialPort.ReadLine();
					Debug.WriteLine($"RX :{response.Trim()} bytes:{response.Length}");
					
					// Join the network
					Console.WriteLine("Start Join");
					serialPort.WriteLine("at+join");
					Thread.Sleep(10000);
					response = serialPort.ReadLine();
					Debug.WriteLine($"RX :{response.Trim()} bytes:{response.Length}");

					while (true)
					{
						Console.WriteLine("Sending");
						serialPort.WriteLine($"at+send=lora:{MessagePort}:{Payload}");
						Thread.Sleep(1000);

						// The OK
						Console.WriteLine("Send result");
						response = serialPort.ReadLine();
						Debug.WriteLine($"RX :{response.Trim()} bytes:{response.Length}");

						// The Signal strength information etc.
						Console.WriteLine("Network confirmation");
						response = serialPort.ReadLine();
						Debug.WriteLine($"RX :{response.Trim()} bytes:{response.Length}");

						Thread.Sleep(20000);
					}
				}
			}
			catch (Exception ex)
			{
				Debug.WriteLine(ex.Message);
			}
		}
	}
}

The code is not suitable for production but it confirmed my software and hardware configuration worked.

In the Visual Studio 2019 debug output I could see messages getting sent and then after a short delay they were visible in the TTN console.

The Things Industries Live Data Tab showing my device connecting and sending messages

The RAK811 doesn’t fully implement the AS923 specification but I have a work around detailed in another post.

nanoFramework Seeed LoRa-E5 LoRaWAN library Part2

Nasty OTAA connect

After getting basic connectivity for my Seeedstudio LoRa-E5 Development Kit and STM32F691DISCOVERY test rig working I wanted to see if I could get the device connected to The Things Industries(TTI).

My Over the Air Activation (OTAA) implementation is very “nasty” as it is assumed that there are no timeouts or failures and it only sends one BCD message “01020304”.

   public class Program
   {
      private const string SerialPortId = "COM6";

      private const string AppKey = "................................";
      private const string AppEui = "................";

      private const byte MessagePort = 15;

      //private const string Payload = "48656c6c6f204c6f526157414e"; // Hello LoRaWAN
      private const string Payload = "01020304"; // AQIDBA==
      //private const string Payload = "04030201"; // BAMCAQ==

   public static void Main()
   {
      SerialDevice serialDevice;
      uint bytesWritten;
      uint txByteCount;
      uint bytesRead;

      Debug.WriteLine("devMobile.IoT.SeeedLoRaE5.NetworkJoinOTAA starting");

      Debug.WriteLine($"Ports available: {Windows.Devices.SerialCommunication.SerialDevice.GetDeviceSelector()}");

      try
      {
         serialDevice = SerialDevice.FromId(SerialPortId);

         // set parameters
         serialDevice.BaudRate = 9600;
         serialDevice.Parity = SerialParity.None;
         serialDevice.StopBits = SerialStopBitCount.One;
         serialDevice.Handshake = SerialHandshake.None;
         serialDevice.DataBits = 8;

         serialDevice.ReadTimeout = new TimeSpan(0, 0, 5);
         serialDevice.WriteTimeout = new TimeSpan(0, 0, 4);

         DataWriter outputDataWriter = new DataWriter(serialDevice.OutputStream);
         DataReader inputDataReader = new DataReader(serialDevice.InputStream);

         // set a watch char to be notified when it's available in the input stream
         serialDevice.WatchChar = '\n';

         // clear out the RX buffer
         bytesRead = inputDataReader.Load(128);
         while (bytesRead > 0)
         {
            string response = inputDataReader.ReadString(bytesRead);
            Debug.WriteLine($"RX :{response}");

            bytesRead = inputDataReader.Load(128);
         }

         // Set the Region to AS923
         bytesWritten = outputDataWriter.WriteString("AT+DR=AS923\r\n");
         Debug.WriteLine($"TX: region {outputDataWriter.UnstoredBufferLength} bytes to output stream.");
         txByteCount = outputDataWriter.Store();
         Debug.WriteLine($"TX: {txByteCount} bytes via {serialDevice.PortName}");

         // Read the response
         bytesRead = inputDataReader.Load(128);
         if (bytesRead > 0)
         {
            String response = inputDataReader.ReadString(bytesRead);
            Debug.WriteLine($"RX :{response}");
         }

         // Set the Join mode
         bytesWritten = outputDataWriter.WriteString("AT+MODE=LWOTAA\r\n");
         Debug.WriteLine($"TX: mode {outputDataWriter.UnstoredBufferLength} bytes to output stream.");
         txByteCount = outputDataWriter.Store();
         Debug.WriteLine($"TX: {txByteCount} bytes via {serialDevice.PortName}");

         // Read the response
         bytesRead = inputDataReader.Load(128);
         if (bytesRead > 0)
         {
            string response = inputDataReader.ReadString(bytesRead);
            Debug.WriteLine($"RX :{response}");
         }

         // Set the appEUI
         bytesWritten = outputDataWriter.WriteString($"AT+ID=AppEui,\"{AppEui}\"\r\n");
         Debug.WriteLine($"TX: AppEui {outputDataWriter.UnstoredBufferLength} bytes to output stream.");
         txByteCount = outputDataWriter.Store();
         Debug.WriteLine($"TX: {txByteCount} bytes via {serialDevice.PortName}");

         // Read the response
         bytesRead = inputDataReader.Load(128);
         if (bytesRead > 0)
         {
            String response = inputDataReader.ReadString(bytesRead);
            Debug.WriteLine($"RX :{response}");
         }

         // Set the appKey
         bytesWritten = outputDataWriter.WriteString($"AT+KEY=APPKEY,{AppKey}\r\n");
         Debug.WriteLine($"TX: AppKey {outputDataWriter.UnstoredBufferLength} bytes to output stream.");
         txByteCount = outputDataWriter.Store();
         Debug.WriteLine($"TX: {txByteCount} bytes via {serialDevice.PortName}");

         // Read the response
         bytesRead = inputDataReader.Load(128);
         if (bytesRead > 0)
         {
            String response = inputDataReader.ReadString(bytesRead);
            Debug.WriteLine($"RX :{response}");
         }

         // Set the port number
         bytesWritten = outputDataWriter.WriteString($"AT+PORT={MessagePort}\r\n");
         Debug.WriteLine($"TX: port {outputDataWriter.UnstoredBufferLength} bytes to output stream.");
         txByteCount = outputDataWriter.Store();
         Debug.WriteLine($"TX: {txByteCount} bytes via {serialDevice.PortName}");

         // Read the response
         bytesRead = inputDataReader.Load(128);
         if (bytesRead > 0)
         {
            String response = inputDataReader.ReadString(bytesRead);
            Debug.WriteLine($"RX :{response}");
         }

         // Join the network
         bytesWritten = outputDataWriter.WriteString("AT+JOIN\r\n");
         Debug.WriteLine($"TX: join {outputDataWriter.UnstoredBufferLength} bytes to output stream.");
         txByteCount = outputDataWriter.Store();
         Debug.WriteLine($"TX: {txByteCount} bytes via {serialDevice.PortName}");

         // Read the response, need loop as multi line response
         bytesRead = inputDataReader.Load(128);
         while (bytesRead > 0)
         {
            String response = inputDataReader.ReadString(bytesRead);
            Debug.WriteLine($"RX :{response}");

            bytesRead = inputDataReader.Load(128);
         }

         while (true)
         {
            bytesWritten = outputDataWriter.WriteString($"AT+MSGHEX=\"{Payload}\"\r\n");
            Debug.WriteLine($"TX: send {outputDataWriter.UnstoredBufferLength} bytes to output stream.");

            txByteCount = outputDataWriter.Store();
            Debug.WriteLine($"TX: {txByteCount} bytes via {serialDevice.PortName}");

            // Read the response, need loop as multi line response
            bytesRead = inputDataReader.Load(128);
            while (bytesRead > 0)
            {
               String response = inputDataReader.ReadString(bytesRead);
               Debug.WriteLine($"RX :{response}");

               bytesRead = inputDataReader.Load(128);
            }

            Thread.Sleep(300000);
         }
      }
      catch (Exception ex)
      {
         Debug.WriteLine(ex.Message);
      }
}

The code is not suitable for production but it confirmed my software and hardware configuration worked.

The thread '<No Name>' (0x2) has exited with code 0 (0x0).
devMobile.IoT.SeeedE5.NetworkJoinOTAA starting
TX: DR 13 bytes
RX :+DR: AS923

TX: MODE 16 bytes
RX :+MODE: LWOTAA

TX: ID=AppEui 40 bytes
RX :+ID: AppEui, ..:..:.:.:.:.:.:.

TX: KEY=APPKEY 48 bytes
RX :+KEY: APPKEY ................................

TX: PORT 11 bytes
RX :+PORT: 1

TX: JOIN 9 bytes
RX :+JOIN: Start
+JOIN: NORMAL
+JOIN: Network joined
+JOIN: NetID 000013 DevAddr ..:..:..:..
+JOIN: Done

TX: MSGHEX 22 bytes
RX :+MSGHEX: Start
+MSGHEX: FPENDING
+MSGHEX: RXWIN1, RSSI -41, SNR 9.0
+MSGHEX: Done

TX: MSGHEX 22 bytes
RX :+MSGHEX: Start
+MSGHEX: Done

In the Visual Studio 2019 debug output I could see messages getting sent and then after a short delay they were visible in the TTI console.

Seeed E5 LoRaWAN dev Kit connecting in The Things Industries Device Live data tab

RAK811/RAK4200 AS923 Join Channels

When running an application which used my TinyCLR V2 RAK811 Module library on a FezDuino with a modified RAK811 LPWAN Evaluation Board(EVB) most join attempts on my Things Industries(TTI) instance would fail. This was a bit odd as connecting to The Things Network(TTN) was pretty reliable.

The thread '<No Name>' (0x2) has exited with code 0 (0x0).
devMobile.IoT.Rak811LoRaWanDeviceClient starting
12:00:12 Region AS923
12:00:12 ADR On
12:00:12 Unconfirmed
12:00:12 OTAA
12:00:13 Join start Timeout:30Sec
Join failed 26
The thread '<No Name>' (0x1) has exited with code 0 (0x0).
Done.

In TTI end device live data tab I could see the the joins attempts were failing with “Uplink channel Not found”

The Things Industries device live data tab “uplink channel not found” failures
The Things Industries device live data tab “uplink channel not found” detail

Initially I assumed this was an issue with my configuration of the RAKwireless RAK7258 gateway in my office that I was using for testing. After some discussions with a helpful TTI support person they suggested that I try disabling all bar the first two channels the RAK811 module was configured to use then see if worked.

I modified the intialise method of my TinyCLR V2 RAK811 Module library to disable all bar the first two channels

result = SendCommand("OK", "at+set_config=lora:ch_mask:2:0", CommandTimeoutDefault);
if (result != Result.Success)
{
#if DIAGNOSTICS
   Debug.WriteLine($" {DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} at+set_config=lora:ch_mask:2:0 {result}");
#endif
   return result;
}

result = SendCommand("OK", "at+set_config=lora:ch_mask:3:0", CommandTimeoutDefault);
if (result != Result.Success)
{
#if DIAGNOSTICS
   Debug.WriteLine($" {DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} at+set_config=lora:ch_mask:3:0 {result}");
#endif
   return result;
}

result = SendCommand("OK", "at+set_config=lora:ch_mask:4:0", CommandTimeoutDefault);
if (result != Result.Success)
{
#if DIAGNOSTICS
   Debug.WriteLine($" {DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} at+set_config=lora:ch_mask:4:0 {result}");
#endif
   return result;
}

result = SendCommand("OK", "at+set_config=lora:ch_mask:5:0", CommandTimeoutDefault);
if (result != Result.Success)
{
#if DIAGNOSTICS
    Debug.WriteLine($" {DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} at+set_config=lora:ch_mask:5:0 {result}");
#endif
   return result;
}

result = SendCommand("OK", "at+set_config=lora:ch_mask:6:0", CommandTimeoutDefault);
if (result != Result.Success)
{
#if DIAGNOSTICS
   Debug.WriteLine($" {DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} at+set_config=lora:ch_mask:6:0 {result}");
#endif
   return result;
}

result = SendCommand("OK", "at+set_config=lora:ch_mask:7:0", CommandTimeoutDefault);
if (result != Result.Success)
{
#if DIAGNOSTICS
   Debug.WriteLine($" {DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} at+set_config=lora:ch_mask:7:0 {result}");
#endif
   return result;
}

After modifying the code my Fezduino joined reliably.

The thread ” (0x2) has exited with code 0 (0x0).
devMobile.IoT.Rak811LoRaWanDeviceClient starting
12:00:12 Region AS923
12:00:12 ADR On
12:00:12 Unconfirmed
12:00:12 OTAA
12:00:13 Join start Timeout:30Sec
12:00:18 Join finish
Temperature : 19.9 °C
Pressure : 1014.0 HPa
Altitude : 143 meters
12:00:19 port:5 payload BCD:0073279C016700C8
12:00:44 Sleep
12:01:44 Wakeup
Temperature : 20.1 °C
Pressure : 1014.0 HPa
Altitude : 143 meters
12:01:44 port:5 payload BCD:0073279C016700C9
12:02:09 Sleep

The Things Industries device live data tab successful join.

After some further discussion with TTI support it looks like the RAK811 module doesn’t send join requests on the frequencies specified for the AS923 region in the LoRaWAN™1.1Regional Parameters.

LoRaWAN Regional Parameters AS923 Join-request frequencies

After confirming the join-request channel issue I went back to the RAKwireless forums with some new terms to search for and found that others were having a similar issue but with RAK4200 modules. My “best guess” is that the TTI implementation is more strict about join-request frequencies than the TTN

RAK811LoRaWAN.TinyCLR on Github

The source code of my TinyCLR V2 RAK811 Module library is now available on GitHub. My demonstration application uses a FezDuino and a modified RAK811 LPWAN Evaluation Board(EVB).

FezDuino with EVB plugged into Arduino headers

A sample application which shows how to connect using Over the Air Activation(OTAA) or Activation By Personalisation(ABP) then send and receive byte array/Binary Coded Decimal(BCD) messages .

//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Copyright (c) July 2020, devMobile Software
//
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
//
//     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.
//
// must have one of 
//    TINYCLR_V2_FEZDUINO or
//    PAYLOAD_BCD or PAYLOAD_BYTES defined
//    OTAA or ABP
//
// For confirmed messages define CONFIRMED
//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
namespace devMobile.IoT.Rak811LoRaWanDeviceClient
{
   using System;
   using System.Threading;
   using System.Diagnostics;

   using GHIElectronics.TinyCLR.Pins;
   using GHIElectronics.TinyCLR.Devices.Uart;

   using devMobile.IoT.LoRaWan;

   public class Program
   {
#if TINYCLR_V2_FEZDUINO
      private const string SerialPortId = SC20100.UartPort.Uart5;
#endif
#if OTAA
      private const string DevEui = "...";
      private const string AppEui = "...";
      private const string AppKey = "...";
#endif
#if ABP
      private const string DevAddress = "...";
      private const string NwksKey = "...";
      private const string AppsKey = "...";
#endif
      private const string Region = "AS923";
      private static readonly TimeSpan JoinTimeOut = new TimeSpan(0, 0, 10);
      private static readonly TimeSpan SendTimeout = new TimeSpan(0, 0, 10);
      private const byte MessagePort = 1;
#if PAYLOAD_BCD
      private const string PayloadBcd = "48656c6c6f204c6f526157414e"; // Hello LoRaWAN in BCD
#endif
#if PAYLOAD_BYTES
      private static readonly byte[] PayloadBytes = { 0x48, 0x65, 0x6c, 0x6c, 0x6f, 0x20, 0x4c, 0x6f, 0x52, 0x61, 0x57, 0x41, 0x4e}; // Hello LoRaWAN in bytes
#endif

      public static void Main()
      {
         Result result;

         Debug.WriteLine("devMobile.IoT.Rak811LoRaWanDeviceClient starting");

         try
         {
            using (Rak811LoRaWanDevice device = new Rak811LoRaWanDevice())
            {
               result = device.Initialise(SerialPortId, 9600, UartParity.None, 8, UartStopBitCount.One);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Initialise failed {result}");
                  return;
               }

#if CONFIRMED
               device.OnMessageConfirmation += OnMessageConfirmationHandler;
#endif
               device.OnReceiveMessage += OnReceiveMessageHandler;

               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Region {Region}");
               result = device.Region(Region);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Region failed {result}");
                  return;
               }

               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} ADR On");
               result = device.AdrOn();
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"ADR on failed {result}");
                  return;
               }

#if CONFIRMED
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Confirmed");
               result = device.Confirm(LoRaConfirmType.Confirmed);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Confirm on failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
#else
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Unconfirmed");
               result = device.Confirm(LoRaConfirmType.Unconfirmed);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Confirm off failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
#endif

#if OTAA
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} OTAA");
               result = device.OtaaInitialise(DevEui, AppEui, AppKey);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"OTAA Initialise failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
#endif

#if ABP
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} ABP");
               result = device.AbpInitialise(DevAddress, NwksKey, AppsKey);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"ABP Initialise failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
#endif

               //Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Join start Timeout:{JoinTimeOut:hh:mm:ss}");
               result = device.Join(JoinTimeOut);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Join failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Join finish");

               while (true)
               {
#if PAYLOAD_BCD
                  Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} port:{MessagePort} payload BCD:{PayloadBcd}");
                  result = device.Send(MessagePort, PayloadBcd, SendTimeout);
#endif
#if PAYLOAD_BYTES
                  Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Send Timeout:{SendTimeout:hh:mm:ss} port:{MessagePort} payload Bytes:{BitConverter.ToString(PayloadBytes)}");
                  result = device.Send(MessagePort, PayloadBytes, SendTimeout);
#endif
                  if (result != Result.Success)
                  {
                     Debug.WriteLine($"Send failed {result}");
                  }

                  // if we sleep module too soon response is missed
                  Thread.Sleep(5000);

                  Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Sleep");
                  result = device.Sleep();
                  if (result != Result.Success)
                  {
                     Debug.WriteLine($"Sleep failed {result}");
                     return;
                  }

                  Thread.Sleep(30000);

                  Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Wakeup");
                  result = device.Wakeup();
                  if (result != Result.Success)
                  {
                     Debug.WriteLine($"Wakeup failed {result}");
                     return;
                  }
               }
            }
         }
         catch (Exception ex)
         {
            Debug.WriteLine(ex.Message);
         }
      }

      static void OnMessageConfirmationHandler(int rssi, int snr)
      {
         Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Send Confirm RSSI:{rssi} SNR:{snr}");
      }

      static void OnReceiveMessageHandler(int port, int rssi, int snr, string payloadBcd)
      {
         byte[] payloadBytes = Rak811LoRaWanDevice.BcdToByes(payloadBcd);

         Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Receive Message RSSI:{rssi} SNR:{snr} Port:{port} Payload:{payloadBcd} PayLoadBytes:{BitConverter.ToString(payloadBytes)}");
      }
   }
}

I noticed (mid July 2020) that when changing from from ABP to OTAA and vice versa I needed to reset the the device “frame counters” in the Things Network console.

RAK811LoRaWAN.NetNF on Github

The source code of my nanoFramework RAK811 Module library is now available on GitHub. My test harness (I plan to add more nanoFramework supported devices) uses an STM32F769 Discovery and a modified RAK811 LPWAN Evaluation Board(EVB).

STM32F691Discovery with EVB plugged into Arduino headers

A sample application which shows how to connect using Over the Air Activation(OTAA) or Activation By Personalisation(ABP) then send and receive byte array/Binary Coded Decimal(BCD) messages .

//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Copyright (c) June 2020, devMobile Software
//
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
//
//     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.
//
//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#define ST_STM32F769I_DISCOVERY      // nanoff --target ST_STM32F769I_DISCOVERY --update 
#define PAYLOAD_BCD
//#define PAYLOAD_BYTES
#define OTAA
//#define ABP
#define CONFIRMED
namespace devMobile.IoT.Rak811LoRaWanDeviceClient
{
   using System;
   using System.Threading;
   using System.Diagnostics;
   using Windows.Devices.SerialCommunication;

   using devMobile.IoT.LoRaWan;

   public class Program
   {
#if ST_STM32F769I_DISCOVERY
      private const string SerialPortId = "COM6";
#endif
#if OTAA
      private const string DevEui = "...";
      private const string AppEui = "...";
      private const string AppKey = "...";
#endif
#if ABP
      private const string DevAddress = "...";
      private const string NwksKey = "...";
      private const string AppsKey = "...";
#endif
      private const string Region = "AS923";
      private static readonly TimeSpan JoinTimeOut = new TimeSpan(0, 0, 10);
      private static readonly TimeSpan SendTimeout = new TimeSpan(0, 0, 10);
      private const byte MessagePort = 1;
#if PAYLOAD_BCD
      private const string PayloadBcd = "48656c6c6f204c6f526157414e"; // Hello LoRaWAN in BCD
#endif
#if PAYLOAD_BYTES
      private static readonly byte[] PayloadBytes = { 0x48, 0x65, 0x6c, 0x6c, 0x6f, 0x20, 0x4c, 0x6f, 0x52, 0x61, 0x57, 0x41, 0x4e}; // Hello LoRaWAN in bytes
#endif

      public static void Main()
      {
         Result result;

         Debug.WriteLine("devMobile.IoT.Rak811LoRaWanDeviceClient starting");

         Debug.WriteLine($"Ports :{Windows.Devices.SerialCommunication.SerialDevice.GetDeviceSelector()}");

         try
         {
            using ( Rak811LoRaWanDevice device = new Rak811LoRaWanDevice())
            {
               result = device.Initialise(SerialPortId, 9600, SerialParity.None, 8, SerialStopBitCount.One);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Initialise failed {result}");
                  return;
               }

#if CONFIRMED
               device.OnMessageConfirmation += OnMessageConfirmationHandler;
#endif
               device.OnReceiveMessage += OnReceiveMessageHandler;

               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Region {Region}");
               result = device.Region(Region);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Region failed {result}");
                  return;
               }

               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} ADR On");
               result = device.AdrOn();
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"ADR on failed {result}");
                  return;
               }

#if CONFIRMED
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Confirmed");
               result = device.Confirm(LoRaConfirmType.Confirmed);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Confirm on failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
#else
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Unconfirmed");
               result = device.Confirm(LoRaConfirmType.Unconfirmed);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Confirm off failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
#endif

#if OTAA
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} OTAA");
               result = device.OtaaInitialise(DevEui, AppEui, AppKey);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"OTAA Initialise failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
#endif

#if ABP
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} ABP");
               result = device.AbpInitialise(DevAddress, NwksKey, AppsKey);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"ABP Initialise failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
#endif

               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Join start Timeout:{JoinTimeOut:hh:mm:ss}");
               result = device.Join(JoinTimeOut);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Join failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Join finish");

               while (true)
               {
#if PAYLOAD_BCD
                  Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Send Timeout:{SendTimeout:hh:mm:ss} port:{MessagePort} payload BCD:{PayloadBcd}");
                  result = device.Send(MessagePort, PayloadBcd, SendTimeout);
#endif
#if PAYLOAD_BYTES
                  Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Send Timeout:{SendTimeout:hh:mm:ss} port:{MessagePort} payload Bytes:{BitConverter.ToString(PayloadBytes)}");
                  result = device.Send(MessagePort, PayloadBytes, SendTimeout);
#endif
                  if (result != Result.Success)
                  {
                     Debug.WriteLine($"Send failed {result}");
                  }

                  // if we sleep module too soon response is missed
                  Thread.Sleep(new TimeSpan( 0,0,5));

                  Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Sleep");
                  result = device.Sleep();
                  if (result != Result.Success)
                  {
                     Debug.WriteLine($"Sleep failed {result}");
                     return;
                  }

                  Thread.Sleep(new TimeSpan(0, 5, 0));

                  Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Wakeup");
                  result = device.Wakeup();
                  if (result != Result.Success)
                  {
                     Debug.WriteLine($"Wakeup failed {result}");
                     return;
                  }
               }
            }
         }
         catch (Exception ex)
         {
            Debug.WriteLine(ex.Message);
         }
      }

      static void OnMessageConfirmationHandler(int rssi, int snr)
      {
         Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Send Confirm RSSI:{rssi} SNR:{snr}");
      }

      static void OnReceiveMessageHandler(int port, int rssi, int snr, string payloadBcd)
      {
         byte[] payloadBytes = Rak811LoRaWanDevice.BcdToByes(payloadBcd);

         Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Receive Message RSSI:{rssi} SNR:{snr} Port:{port} Payload:{payloadBcd} PayLoadBytes:{BitConverter.ToString(payloadBytes)}");
      }
   }
}

I have LoRaWAN shields from GobalSat and EmOne on order.

The library works but should be treated as late beta.

RAK811 LPWAN EVB Part2

How can I use this…

Just over a week ago I purchased a RAK811 LPWAN Evaluation Board -AS923 and now I want to trial it with selection of devices and configurations.

Initially I didn’t want to modify the shield by removing resistors as I only have one, and I’m not certain what device(s) it will be used with. The initial hardware configuration required jumpers for the serial port, ground and 5V power.

Arduino Uno R3 and RAK811 LPWAN Evaluation board 5V config

After looking at the schematic it should be possible to use the shield with a 3v3 device.

RAK 811 EVB schematic pg1
RAK 811 EVB schematic pg2

I confirmed this with a Seeeduino V4.2 devices set to 3v3, by putting a jumper on J1 and shifting the jumper wire from the 5V to the 3V3 pin.

Seeeduino V4 and RAK811 LPWAN Evaluation board 3V3 config

The next step was to see how I could get the RAK shield working on other devices without jumpers. On Arduino Uno R3 devices D0&D1 are the hardware(HW) serial port which are used for uploading sketches, and diagnostic logging.

The shield also connects the module serial port to D0&D1 to D10&D11, so by removing R17&R19 the shield should work on a device This would also allow the use of the Serial Peripheral Interface(SPI) port for other applications.

Using the HW Serial port but without any logging.

Unplugging the jumpers to upload was painful but the lack of logging made it really hard to debug my code.

To get around this I configured a SoftwareSerial port on D2&D3 for logging.

/********************************************************
 * This demo is only supported after RUI firmware version 3.0.0.13.X on RAK811
 * Master Board Uart Receive buffer size at least 128 bytes. 
 ********************************************************/
//#define SERIAL_BUFFER_SIZE 128
//#define SERIAL_TX_BUFFER_SIZE 64
//#define SERIAL_RX_BUFFER_SIZE 128
//#define _SS_MAX_RX_BUFF 128
#include "RAK811.h"
#include "SoftwareSerial.h"
#define WORK_MODE LoRaWAN   //  LoRaWAN or LoRaP2P
#define JOIN_MODE OTAA    //  OTAA or ABP
#if JOIN_MODE == OTAA
String DevEui = "..."; // From TTN
String AppEui = "...";
String AppKey = "...";
#else JOIN_MODE == ABP
String NwkSKey = "...";
String AppSKey = "...";
String DevAddr = "...";
#endif

#define TXpin 3   // Set the virtual serial port pins
#define RXpin 2

SoftwareSerial DebugSerial(RXpin,TXpin); // Declare a virtual serial port for debugging
#define ATSerial Serial

char buffer[]= "48656C6C6F20776F726C6435";

bool InitLoRaWAN(void);
RAK811 RAKLoRa(ATSerial,DebugSerial);

void setup() {
  DebugSerial.begin(19200);
  DebugSerial.println(F("Starting"));
  while(DebugSerial.available())
  {
    DebugSerial.read(); 
  }
  
  ATSerial.begin(9600); //set ATSerial baudrate:This baud rate has to be consistent with  the baud rate of the WisNode device.
  while(ATSerial.available())
  {
    ATSerial.read(); 
  }

  if(!RAKLoRa.rk_setWorkingMode(0))  //set WisNode work_mode to LoRaWAN.
  {
    DebugSerial.println(F("set work_mode failed, please reset module."));
    while(1);
  }
  
  RAKLoRa.rk_getVersion();  //get RAK811 firmware version
  DebugSerial.println(RAKLoRa.rk_recvData());  //print version number

  DebugSerial.println(F("Start init RAK811 parameters..."));
 
  if (!InitLoRaWAN())  //init LoRaWAN
  {
    DebugSerial.println(F("Init error,please reset module.")); 
    while(1);
  }

  DebugSerial.println(F("Start to join LoRaWAN..."));
  while(!RAKLoRa.rk_joinLoRaNetwork(60))  //Joining LoRaNetwork timeout 60s
  {
    DebugSerial.println();
    DebugSerial.println(F("Rejoin again after 5s..."));
    delay(5000);
  }
  DebugSerial.println(F("Join LoRaWAN success"));

  if(!RAKLoRa.rk_isConfirm(0))  //set LoRa data send package type:0->unconfirm, 1->confirm
  {
    DebugSerial.println(F("LoRa data send package set error,please reset module.")); 
    while(1);    
  }
}

bool InitLoRaWAN(void)
{
  if(RAKLoRa.rk_setJoinMode(JOIN_MODE))  //set join_mode:OTAA
  {
    if(RAKLoRa.rk_setRegion(0))  //set region EU868
    {
      if (RAKLoRa.rk_initOTAA(DevEui, AppEui, AppKey))
      {
        DebugSerial.println(F("RAK811 init OK!"));  
        return true;    
      }
    }
  }
  return false;
}

void loop() 
{
  DebugSerial.println(F("Start send data..."));
  if (RAKLoRa.rk_sendData(1, buffer))
  {    
    //for (unsigned long start = millis(); millis() - start < 300000L;)
    for (unsigned long start = millis(); millis() - start < 10000L;)
    {
      String ret = RAKLoRa.rk_recvData();
      if(ret != NULL)
      { 
        DebugSerial.println("ret != NULL");
        DebugSerial.println(ret);
      }
      if((ret.indexOf("OK")>0)||(ret.indexOf("ERROR")>0))
      {
        DebugSerial.println(F("Go to Sleep."));
        RAKLoRa.rk_sleep(1);  //Set RAK811 enter sleep mode
        delay(10000);  //delay 10s
        RAKLoRa.rk_sleep(0);  //Wakeup RAK811 from sleep mode
        break;
      }
    }
  }
}

I used an FTDI module I had lying around to connect the diagnostic logging serial port on the test rig to my development box.

Using the HW Serial port but with logging.

Now I only had to unplug the jumpers for D0&D1 and change ports in the Arduino IDE. One port for debugging the other for downloading.

Depending on the application I may remove R8 so I can manually reset the shield.

RAK811 LPWAN EVB Part1

I followed the instructions…

Just over a week ago I purchased some gear from RAK Wireless, the shipping was reasonable, it arrived promptly, and was well packaged. I had ordered

I figured a good first project would be to get the evaluation board going with one of my older Arduino Uno R3 devices following the Interfacing your RAK811 LPWAN Evaluation Board with Arduino Boards instructions.

The evaluation board was in its own box along with a USB cable, some spare PCB jumpers, some jumper leads and an antenna labeled with the frequency band which was thoughtful.

Arduino Uno R3 and RAK811 LPWAN Evaluation board 5V config

I downloaded the specified library from the RAK Wireless Github repository extracted the contents and copied the V1.3 directory into the libraries folder of my Arduino IDE install.

I updated the module software to the latest using the tools provided in the github download and checked this with the RAK Serial Port tool over the Universal Serial Bus(USB) connection (make sure the jumpers next to the antenna connection are set correctly)

Version number check with RAK Serial Port tool

I created a new project based on JoinNetworkOTAA (Over the Air Activation) example.

/********************************************************
 * This demo is only supported after RUI firmware version 3.0.0.13.X on RAK811
 * Master Board Uart Receive buffer size at least 128 bytes. 
 ********************************************************/

#include "RAK811.h"
#include "SoftwareSerial.h"
#define WORK_MODE LoRaWAN   //  LoRaWAN or LoRaP2P
#define JOIN_MODE OTAA    //  OTAA or ABP
#if JOIN_MODE == OTAA
String DevEui = "8680000000000001";
String AppEui = "70B3D57ED00285A7";
String AppKey = "DDDFB1023885FBFF74D3A55202EDF2B1";
#else JOIN_MODE == ABP
String NwkSKey = "69AF20AEA26C01B243945A28C9172B42";
String AppSKey = "841986913ACD00BBC2BE2479D70F3228";
String DevAddr = "260125D7";
#endif
#define TXpin 11   // Set the virtual serial port pins
#define RXpin 10
#define DebugSerial Serial
SoftwareSerial ATSerial(RXpin,TXpin);    // Declare a virtual serial port
char buffer[]= "72616B776972656C657373";

bool InitLoRaWAN(void);
RAK811 RAKLoRa(ATSerial,DebugSerial);


void setup() {
  DebugSerial.begin(115200);
  while(DebugSerial.available())
  {
    DebugSerial.read(); 
  }
  
  ATSerial.begin(9600); //set ATSerial baudrate:This baud rate has to be consistent with  the baud rate of the WisNode device.
  while(ATSerial.available())
  {
    ATSerial.read(); 
  }

  if(!RAKLoRa.rk_setWorkingMode(0))  //set WisNode work_mode to LoRaWAN.
  {
    DebugSerial.println(F("set work_mode failed, please reset module."));
    while(1);
  }
  
  RAKLoRa.rk_getVersion();  //get RAK811 firmware version
  DebugSerial.println(RAKLoRa.rk_recvData());  //print version number

  DebugSerial.println(F("Start init RAK811 parameters..."));
 
  if (!InitLoRaWAN())  //init LoRaWAN
  {
    DebugSerial.println(F("Init error,please reset module.")); 
    while(1);
  }

  DebugSerial.println(F("Start to join LoRaWAN..."));
  while(!RAKLoRa.rk_joinLoRaNetwork(60))  //Joining LoRaNetwork timeout 60s
  {
    DebugSerial.println();
    DebugSerial.println(F("Rejoin again after 5s..."));
    delay(5000);
  }
  DebugSerial.println(F("Join LoRaWAN success"));

  if(!RAKLoRa.rk_isConfirm(0))  //set LoRa data send package type:0->unconfirm, 1->confirm
  {
    DebugSerial.println(F("LoRa data send package set error,please reset module.")); 
    while(1);    
  }
}

bool InitLoRaWAN(void)
{
  if(RAKLoRa.rk_setJoinMode(JOIN_MODE))  //set join_mode:OTAA
  {
    if(RAKLoRa.rk_setRegion(0))  //set region EU868
    {
      if (RAKLoRa.rk_initOTAA(DevEui, AppEui, AppKey))
      {
        DebugSerial.println(F("RAK811 init OK!"));  
        return true;    
      }
    }
  }
  return false;
}

void loop() {
  DebugSerial.println(F("Start send data..."));
  if (RAKLoRa.rk_sendData(1, buffer))
  {    
    for (unsigned long start = millis(); millis() - start < 90000L;)
    {
      String ret = RAKLoRa.rk_recvData();
      if(ret != NULL)
      { 
        DebugSerial.println(ret);
      }
      if((ret.indexOf("OK")>0)||(ret.indexOf("ERROR")>0))
      {
        DebugSerial.println(F("Go to Sleep."));
        RAKLoRa.rk_sleep(1);  //Set RAK811 enter sleep mode
        delay(10000);  //delay 10s
        RAKLoRa.rk_sleep(0);  //Wakeup RAK811 from sleep mode
        break;
      }
    }
  }
}

I had to look at the library code to work out the value the rk_setRegion call needed for the AS932 band used in my region

bool RAK811::rk_setRegion(int region)
{
  if (region > 9)
  {
    _serial1.println(F("Parameter error"));
    return false;
  }
  String REGION;
  switch (region)
  {
    case 0:REGION="AS923";
      break;
    case 1:REGION="AU915";
      break;
    case 2:REGION="CN470";
      break;
    case 3:REGION="CN779";
      break;
    case 4:REGION="EU433";
      break;
    case 5:REGION="EU868";
      break;
    case 6:REGION="KR920";
      break;
    case 7:REGION="IN865";
      break;
    case 8:REGION="US915";
      break;
    case 9:REGION="US915_Hybrid";
      break;
  }
  _serial1.println("Current work region: "+REGION);
  sendRawCommand("at+set_config=lora:region:" + REGION);
  ret = rk_recvData();
#if defined DEBUG_MODE
  _serial1.println(ret);
#endif
  if (ret.indexOf("OK") >= 0)
  {
    return true;
  }
  else
  {
    return false;
  }
}

I compiled the code, uploaded it to my device and it didn’t work…

Arduino monitor output showing rk_setWorkingMode failing

I then had a look at the Arduino library code and enabled some of the commented out diagnostic println statements. At the time it did seem odd there were no responses from the module.

Arduino monitor output showing rk_setWorkingMode failing with debugging

I had noticed some odd characters in the RAK Serial Port Tool while checking version numbers etc.

Setting work Mode with RAK Serial Port Tool

It looked like maybe the serial port was having some issues, so I double checked my modification of the HardwareSerial.h file and began to wonder (as the binary size wasn’t changing) if I had the right file. After some research I found there are several copies of that file and I wasn’t modifying the correct one.

Multiple locations of HardwareSerial.h

Then I realised that the port sending AT Commands to the module was actually a SoftwareSerial port not a hardware one. I then tried changing the size of the software serial buffers but still was having problems.

Arduino tool with default buffer sizes (833 bytes)
Arduino tool with non-default buffer sizes (961 bytes)

I then tried recompiling with different settings to see if the serial port issues would stop. The global variables size changed which showed I had the right files/settings but the code still didn’t work.

Going back over my settings I tried the command used in the rk_setWorkingMode call in the RAK Serial Port Tool and it worked.

I then then went for a walk and when I came back I realised the module speed was set to 115200 baud by default (which it is). I then used at+set_config=device:uart:1:9600 (don’t forget to press <enter> at end of the line) to set baud rate to match the code.

Setting device to 9600 baud

I then changed the jumpers and ran the software again…

So, it looks like the RAK811 module was set to 115200 baud (web based setup instructions), but the later library versions were 9600 baud, but the instructions didn’t mention the need to change the speed with the RAK Serial port tool.

Image of code and setup from RAK instructions

Now that my device is trying to connect to a network I need to configure the LoRaWAN network settings. I’m going to use the RAK7246G LPWAN Developer Gateway and the nationwide LoRaWAN network operated by Spark in New Zealand.