nanoFramework RAK811 LoRaWAN library Part7

Now with added callbacks

After building a nanoFramwork library “inspired” by the RakWireless Arduino library(which has some issues) I figured it would be good to refactor the library to be more asynchronous with event handlers for send confirmation (if configured) and received messages.

If the RAK811 module is initialised, and connects to the network successfully, the application sends “48656c6c6f204c6f526157414e” (“hello LoRaWAN”) every 5 minutes.

STM32F691Discovery with EVB plugged into Arduino headers

The code application code now has a lot more compile time options for network configuration and payload format.

//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Copyright (c) June 2020, devMobile Software
//
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
//
//     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.
//
//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#define ST_STM32F769I_DISCOVERY      // nanoff --target ST_STM32F769I_DISCOVERY --update 
#define PAYLOAD_BCD
//#define PAYLOAD_BYTES
#define OTAA
//#define ABP
#define CONFIRMED
namespace devMobile.IoT.Rak811LoRaWanDeviceClient
{
   using System;
   using System.Threading;
   using System.Diagnostics;
   using Windows.Devices.SerialCommunication;

   using devMobile.IoT.LoRaWan;

   public class Program
   {
#if ST_STM32F769I_DISCOVERY
      private const string SerialPortId = "COM6";
#endif
#if OTAA
      private const string DevEui = "...";
      private const string AppEui = "...";
      private const string AppKey = "...";
#endif
#if ABP
      private const string DevAddress = "...";
      private const string NwksKey = "...";
      private const string AppsKey = "...";
#endif
      private const string Region = "AS923";
      private static readonly TimeSpan JoinTimeOut = new TimeSpan(0, 0, 10);
      private static readonly TimeSpan SendTimeout = new TimeSpan(0, 0, 10);
      private const byte MessagePort = 1;
#if PAYLOAD_BCD
      private const string PayloadBcd = "48656c6c6f204c6f526157414e"; // Hello LoRaWAN in BCD
#endif
#if PAYLOAD_BYTES
      private static readonly byte[] PayloadBytes = { 0x48, 0x65, 0x6c, 0x6c, 0x6f, 0x20, 0x4c, 0x6f, 0x52, 0x61, 0x57, 0x41, 0x4e}; // Hello LoRaWAN in bytes
#endif

      public static void Main()
      {
         Result result;

         Debug.WriteLine("devMobile.IoT.Rak811LoRaWanDeviceClient starting");

         Debug.WriteLine($"Ports :{Windows.Devices.SerialCommunication.SerialDevice.GetDeviceSelector()}");

         try
         {
            using ( Rak811LoRaWanDevice device = new Rak811LoRaWanDevice())
            {
               result = device.Initialise(SerialPortId, 9600, SerialParity.None, 8, SerialStopBitCount.One);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Initialise failed {result}");
                  return;
               }

#if CONFIRMED
               device.OnMessageConfirmation += OnMessageConfirmationHandler;
#endif
               device.OnReceiveMessage += OnReceiveMessageHandler;

               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Region {Region}");
               result = device.Region(Region);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Region failed {result}");
                  return;
               }

               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} ADR On");
               result = device.AdrOn();
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"ADR on failed {result}");
                  return;
               }

#if CONFIRMED
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Confirmed");
               result = device.Confirm(LoRaConfirmType.Confirmed);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Confirm on failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
#else
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Unconfirmed");
               result = device.Confirm(LoRaConfirmType.Unconfirmed);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Confirm off failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
#endif

#if OTAA
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} OTAA");
               result = device.OtaaInitialise(DevEui, AppEui, AppKey);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"OTAA Initialise failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
#endif

#if ABP
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} ABP");
               result = device.AbpInitialise(DevAddress, NwksKey, AppsKey);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"ABP Initialise failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
#endif

               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Join start Timeout:{JoinTimeOut:hh:mm:ss}");
               result = device.Join(JoinTimeOut);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Join failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
               Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Join finish");

               while (true)
               {
#if PAYLOAD_BCD
                  Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Send Timeout:{SendTimeout:hh:mm:ss} port:{MessagePort} payload BCD:{PayloadBcd}");
                  result = device.Send(MessagePort, PayloadBcd, SendTimeout);
#endif
#if PAYLOAD_BYTES
                  Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Send Timeout:{SendTimeout:hh:mm:ss} port:{MessagePort} payload Bytes:{BitConverter.ToString(PayloadBytes)}");
                  result = device.Send(MessagePort, PayloadBytes, SendTimeout);
#endif
                  if (result != Result.Success)
                  {
                     Debug.WriteLine($"Send failed {result}");
                  }

                  // if we sleep module too soon response is missed
                  Thread.Sleep(new TimeSpan( 0,0,5));

                  Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Sleep");
                  result = device.Sleep();
                  if (result != Result.Success)
                  {
                     Debug.WriteLine($"Sleep failed {result}");
                     return;
                  }

                  Thread.Sleep(new TimeSpan(0, 5, 0));

                  Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Wakeup");
                  result = device.Wakeup();
                  if (result != Result.Success)
                  {
                     Debug.WriteLine($"Wakeup failed {result}");
                     return;
                  }
               }
            }
         }
         catch (Exception ex)
         {
            Debug.WriteLine(ex.Message);
         }
      }

      static void OnMessageConfirmationHandler(int rssi, int snr)
      {
         Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Send Confirm RSSI:{rssi} SNR:{snr}");
      }

      static void OnReceiveMessageHandler(int port, int rssi, int snr, string payloadBcd)
      {
         byte[] payloadBytes = Rak811LoRaWanDevice.BcdToByes(payloadBcd);

         Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Receive Message RSSI:{rssi} SNR:{snr} Port:{port} Payload:{payloadBcd} PayLoadBytes:{BitConverter.ToString(payloadBytes)}");
      }
   }
}

The debugging output with the Rak811LoRaWanDevice class diagnostics off

The thread '<No Name>' (0x2) has exited with code 0 (0x0).
devMobile.IoT.Rak811LoRaWanDeviceClient starting
Ports :COM5,COM6
12:00:51 Region AS923
12:00:51 ADR On
12:00:51 Confirmed
12:00:52 OTAA
12:00:52 Join start Timeout:00:00:10
12:00:59 Join finish
12:00:59 Send Timeout:00:00:10 port:1 payload BCD:48656c6c6f204c6f526157414e
12:01:02 Send Confirm RSSI:-79 SNR:9
12:01:07 Sleep
12:06:07 Wakeup
12:06:07 Send Timeout:00:00:10 port:1 payload BCD:48656c6c6f204c6f526157414e
12:06:08 Send Confirm RSSI:-65 SNR:8
12:06:13 Sleep
12:11:13 Wakeup
12:11:13 Send Timeout:00:00:10 port:1 payload BCD:48656c6c6f204c6f526157414e
12:11:15 Send Confirm RSSI:-60 SNR:7
12:11:15 Receive Message RSSI:-60 SNR:7 Port:5 Payload:48656c6c6f PayLoadBytes:48-65-6C-6C-6F
12:11:20 Sleep
TTN OTAA Connection + RX&TX

Some commands are quite quick to respond e.g. setting the Region, Sleep, and Wakeup. Others, take quite a while e.g. Join, Send, WorkMode so they have separate timeout configurations.

The code is approaching beat and I’ll be testing and fixing bugs for the next couple of days.

nanoFramework RAK811 LoRaWAN library Part6

Inspired by the Arduino Library

After successful proof of concept projects I have build a nanoFramwork library “inspired” by the RakWireless Arduino library.

The initial version only supports my RAK811 LPWAN Evaluation Board(EVB) and STM32F691DISCOVERY based test rig It handles failures, displays error codes/messages, but doesn’t handle all timeouts.

If the RAK811 module is initialised, then connects to the network successfully, the application sends “48656c6c6f204c6f526157414e” (“hello LoRaWAN”) every 20 seconds.

STM32F691Discovery with EVB plugged into Arduino headers

The code application code is now a lot smaller & simpler

   public class Program
   {
#if ST_STM32F769I_DISCOVERY
      private const string SerialPortId = "COM6";
#endif
#if OTAA
      private const string DevEui = "...";
      private const string AppEui = "...";
      private const string AppKey = "...";
#endif
#if ABP
      private const string devAddress = "...";
      private const string nwksKey = "...";
      private const string appsKey = "...";
#endif
      private const byte MessagePort = 1;
      private const string Payload = "48656c6c6f204c6f526157414e"; // Hello LoRaWAN

      public static void Main()
      {
         Result result;

         Debug.WriteLine(" devMobile.IoT.Rak811LoRaWanDeviceClient starting");

         Debug.WriteLine(Windows.Devices.SerialCommunication.SerialDevice.GetDeviceSelector());

         try
         {
            using ( Rak811LoRaWanDevice device = new Rak811LoRaWanDevice())
            {
               result = device.Initialise(SerialPortId, SerialParity.None, 8, SerialStopBitCount.One);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Initialise failed {result}");
                  return;
               }

               result = device.Region("AS923");
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Region failed {result}");
                  return;
               }

#if OTAA
               result = device.OtaaInitialise(DevEui, AppEui, AppKey);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"OTAA Initialise failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
#endif

#if ABP
               result = device.AbpInitialise(devAddress, nwksKey, appsKey);
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"ABP Initialise failed {result}");
                  return;
               }
#endif

               result = device.Join(new TimeSpan(0,0,10));
               if (result != Result.Success)
               {
                  Debug.WriteLine($"Join failed {result}");
                  return;
               }

               while (true)
               {
                  result = device.Send(MessagePort, Payload);
                  if (result != Result.Success)
                  {
                     Debug.WriteLine($"Send failed {result}");
                  }

                  result = device.Sleep();
                  if (result != Result.Success)
                  {
                     Debug.WriteLine($"Sleep failed {result}");
                     return;
                  }

                  Thread.Sleep(20000);

                  result = device.Wakeup();
                  if (result != Result.Success)
                  {
                     Debug.WriteLine($"Wakeup failed {result}");
                     return;
                  }
               }
            }
         }
         catch (Exception ex)
         {
            Debug.WriteLine(ex.Message);
         }
      }
   }

I compared the debugging output with confirmations off

The thread '<No Name>' (0x2) has exited with code 0 (0x0).
 devMobile.IoT.Rak811LoRaWanDeviceClient starting
COM5,COM6
01:11:13 lora:work_mode
TX: send 32 bytes 32 via COM6
RX 01:11:14:UART1 work mode: RUI_UART_NORAMAL
Current work_mode:LoRaWAN, join_mode:OTAA, Class: A
Initialization OK 

01:11:15 lora:region
TX: send 33 bytes 33 via COM6
RX 01:11:16:OK 

01:11:16 lora:join_mode
TX: send 32 bytes 32 via COM6
RX 01:11:17:OK 

01:11:18 lora:dev_eui
TX: send 45 bytes 45 via COM6
RX 01:11:19:OK 

01:11:19 lora:app_eui
TX: send 45 bytes 45 via COM6
RX 01:11:20:OK 

01:11:21 lora:app_key
TX: send 61 bytes 61 via COM6
RX 01:11:22:OK 

01:11:22 join
TX: send 9 bytes 9 via COM6
RX 01:11:29:OK Join Success

TX: send 43 bytes to output stream.
TX: 43 bytes via COM6
TX: send 43 bytes to output stream.
TX: 43 bytes via COM6
RX :OK 

TX: send 43 bytes to output stream.
TX: 43 bytes via COM6
RX :OK 
at+recv=1,-54,9,5:48656c6c6f

TX: send 43 bytes to output stream.
TX: 43 bytes via COM6

TX: send 43 bytes to output stream.
TX: 43 bytes via COM6
RX :OK 
at+recv=2,-51,7,5:48656c6c6f

TX: send 43 bytes to output stream.
TX: 43 bytes via COM6

Then with confirmations on (note the at+recv=0,-59,7,0) and received messages (at+recv=23,-53,8,5:48656c6c6f)

devMobile.IoT.Rak811LoRaWanDeviceClient starting
COM5,COM6
01:20:54 lora:work_mode
TX: send 32 bytes 32 via COM6
RX 01:20:56:UART1 work mode: RUI_UART_NORAMAL
Current work_mode:LoRaWAN, join_mode:OTAA, Class: A
Initialization OK 

01:20:56 lora:region
TX: send 33 bytes 33 via COM6
RX 01:20:57:OK 

01:20:58 lora:join_mode
TX: send 32 bytes 32 via COM6
RX 01:20:59:OK 

01:20:59 lora:dev_eui
TX: send 45 bytes 45 via COM6
RX 01:21:00:OK 

01:21:01 lora:app_eui
TX: send 45 bytes 45 via COM6
RX 01:21:02:OK 

01:21:02 lora:app_key
TX: send 61 bytes 61 via COM6
RX 01:21:03:OK 

01:21:04 join
TX: send 9 bytes 9 via COM6
RX 01:21:11:OK Join Success

01:21:11 lora:confirm
TX: send 30 bytes 30 via COM6
RX 01:21:12:OK 

TX: send 43 bytes to output stream.
TX: 43 bytes via COM6
TX: send 43 bytes to output stream.
TX: 43 bytes via COM6
TX: send 43 bytes to output stream.
TX: 43 bytes via COM6
RX :OK 
at+recv=23,-53,8,5:48656c6c6f

TX: send 43 bytes to output stream.
TX: 43 bytes via COM6

TX: send 43 bytes to output stream.
TX: 43 bytes via COM6
RX :OK 
at+recv=0,-59,7,0

In the Visual Studio 2019 debug output I could see the responses to the AT Commands and especially the lack of handling of downlink messages and confirmations from the network.

The next step is to implement timeouts for when operations fail or the module doesn’t respond. Then extend the code to support the receiving of messages as a class A device (missing for the RAK arduino library). I wonder how this will work for when the module is configured as a class C device which can receive messages at any time.

Some commands are quite quick to respond e.g. setting the Region, Sleep, and Wakeup so are most probably ok running synchronously. Other commands can take quite a while e.g. Join, Send, WorkMode so maybe these need to be asynchronous (along with the receiving of confirmations and messages ).

The code is not suitable for production but it confirmed my new approach worked.

nanoFramework RAK811 LoRaWAN library Part5

Nasty ABP connect

After a successful Over The Air Activation(OTAA) with my RAK811 LPWAN Evaluation Board(EVB) and STM32F691DISCOVERY based test rig. I figured for completeness an Activation by Personalization (ABP) would be a good.

My ABP implementation is based on my OTAA one so is pretty “nasty”. Again, I assumed that there would be no timeouts or failures and I only send one message BCD “48656c6c6f204c6f526157414e” (“hello LoRaWAN”) every 20 seconds.

STM32F691Discovery with EVB plugged into Arduino headers

I created a new ABP device

Things Network ABP configuration

Then I configured the RAK811 module for LoRaWAN

// Set the Working mode to LoRaWAN
bytesWritten = outputDataWriter.WriteString("at+set_config=lora:work_mode:0rn");
Debug.WriteLine($"TX: work_mode {outputDataWriter.UnstoredBufferLength} bytes to output stream.");
txByteCount = outputDataWriter.Store();
Debug.WriteLine($"TX: {txByteCount} bytes via {serialDevice.PortName}");

// Read the response
bytesRead = inputDataReader.Load(128);
if (bytesRead > 0)
{
   string response = inputDataReader.ReadString(bytesRead);
   Debug.WriteLine($"RX sync:{response}");
}

Then sequentially stepped through the necessary configuration to join the The Things Network(TTN) network

// Set the JoinMode to ABP
bytesWritten = outputDataWriter.WriteString($"at+set_config=lora:join_mode:1\r\n");
Debug.WriteLine($"TX: join_mode {outputDataWriter.UnstoredBufferLength} bytes to output stream.");
txByteCount = outputDataWriter.Store();
Debug.WriteLine($"TX: {txByteCount} bytes via {serialDevice.PortName}");

// Read the response
bytesRead = inputDataReader.Load(128);
if (bytesRead > 0)
{
   String response = inputDataReader.ReadString(bytesRead);
   Debug.WriteLine($"RX :{response}");
}

// Set the device address
bytesWritten = outputDataWriter.WriteString($"at+set_config=lora:dev_addr:{devAddress}\r\n");
Debug.WriteLine($"TX: dev_addr {outputDataWriter.UnstoredBufferLength} bytes to output stream.");
txByteCount = outputDataWriter.Store();
Debug.WriteLine($"TX: {txByteCount} bytes via {serialDevice.PortName}");

// Read the response
bytesRead = inputDataReader.Load(128);
if (bytesRead > 0)
   {
   String response = inputDataReader.ReadString(bytesRead);
   Debug.WriteLine($"RX :{response}");
   }
...

After making a few fixes to my code and tweaking some settings I could see data in the TTN Console.

ABP Device data uplink

The code is not suitable for production but it confirmed my software and hardware configuration worked.

In the Visual Studio 2019 debug output I could see the AT Command responses from were getting truncated in odd ways so I need to be careful how they are processed.

The thread '<No Name>' (0x2) has exited with code 0 (0x0).
devMobile.IoT.Rak811.NetworkJoinABP starting
COM5,COM6
TX: work_mode 32 bytes to output stream.
TX: 32 bytes via COM6
RX :UART1 work mode: RUI_UART_NORAMAL
Current work_mode:LoRaWAN, join_mode:ABP, Class: A
Initialization OK 

TX: region 33 bytes to output stream.
TX: 33 bytes via COM6
RX :OK 

TX: join_mode 32 bytes to output stream.
TX: 32 bytes via COM6
RX :OK 

TX: dev_addr 38 bytes to output stream.
TX: 38 bytes via COM6
RX :OK 

TX: nwks_key 62 bytes to output stream.
TX: 62 bytes via COM6
RX :OK 

TX: apps_key 62 bytes to output stream.
TX: 62 bytes via COM6
RX :OK 

TX: confirm 30 bytes to output stream.
TX: 30 bytes via COM6
RX :OK 

TX: join 9 bytes to output stream.
TX: 9 bytes via COM6
TX: send 43 bytes to output stream.
TX: 43 bytes via COM6
TX: send 43 bytes to output stream.
TX: 43 bytes via COM6
RX :OK Jo
TX: send 43 bytes to output stream.
TX: 43 bytes via COM6
RX :in Su
TX: send 43 bytes to output stream.
TX: 43 bytes via COM6
RX :ccess
TX: send 43 bytes to output stream.
TX: 43 bytes via COM6
RX :
OK 
TX: send 43 bytes to output stream.
TX: 43 bytes via COM6
RX :
OK 

The next step is to get rework the code to process responses to the AT commands in a smarter way and extract error codes when an operation fails.

nanoFramework RAK811 LoRaWAN library Part4

Nasty OTAA connect

After getting basic connectivity for my RAK811 LPWAN Evaluation Board(EVB) and STM32F691DISCOVERY test rig sorted. I wanted to see if I could get the device connected to The Things Network(TTN) via the RAK7246G LPWAN Developer Gateway which was on my desk. I had got the EVB configuration sorted with an Arduino Uno R3 device so I was confident it should work.

STM32F691Discovery with EVB plugged into Arduino headers

My Over the Air Activation(OTAA) implementation is pretty “nasty” I assumed that there would be no timeouts or failures and I only send one BCD message “48656c6c6f204c6f526157414e” which is “hello LoRaWAN”

I configured the RAK811 module for LoRaWAN

// Set the Working mode to LoRaWAN
bytesWritten = outputDataWriter.WriteString("at+set_config=lora:work_mode:0\r\n");
Debug.WriteLine($"TX: work_mode {outputDataWriter.UnstoredBufferLength} bytes to output stream.");
txByteCount = outputDataWriter.Store();
Debug.WriteLine($"TX: {txByteCount} bytes via {serialDevice.PortName}");

// Read the response
bytesRead = inputDataReader.Load(128);
if (bytesRead > 0)
{
   string response = inputDataReader.ReadString(bytesRead);
   Debug.WriteLine($"RX sync:{response}");
}

Then just sequentially stepped through the necessary configuration to join the TTN network

// Set the Region to AS923
bytesWritten = outputDataWriter.WriteString("at+set_config=lora:region:AS923\r\n");
Debug.WriteLine($"TX: region {outputDataWriter.UnstoredBufferLength} bytes to output stream.");
txByteCount = outputDataWriter.Store();
Debug.WriteLine($"TX: {txByteCount} bytes via {serialDevice.PortName}");

// Read the response
bytesRead = inputDataReader.Load(128);
if (bytesRead > 0)
{
   String response = inputDataReader.ReadString(bytesRead);
   Debug.WriteLine($"RX sync:{response}");
}

// Set the JoinMode
bytesWritten = outputDataWriter.WriteString($"at+set_config=lora:join_mode:0\r\n");
Debug.WriteLine($"TX: join_mode {outputDataWriter.UnstoredBufferLength} bytes to output stream.");
txByteCount = outputDataWriter.Store();
Debug.WriteLine($"TX: {txByteCount} bytes via {serialDevice.PortName}");

// Read the response
bytesRead = inputDataReader.Load(128);
if (bytesRead > 0)
{
   String response = inputDataReader.ReadString(bytesRead);
   Debug.WriteLine($"RX sync:{response}");
}

// OTAA set the devEUI
bytesWritten = outputDataWriter.WriteString($"at+set_config=lora:dev_eui:{devEui}\r\n");
Debug.WriteLine($"TX: dev_eui {outputDataWriter.UnstoredBufferLength} bytes to output stream.");
txByteCount = outputDataWriter.Store();
Debug.WriteLine($"TX: {txByteCount} bytes via {serialDevice.PortName}");

// Read the response
bytesRead = inputDataReader.Load(128);
if (bytesRead > 0)
{
   String response = inputDataReader.ReadString(bytesRead);
   Debug.WriteLine($"RX sync:{response}");
}
...

The code is not suitable for production but it confirmed my software and hardware configuration worked.

The thread '<No Name>' (0x2) has exited with code 0 (0x0).
devMobile.IoT.Rak811.NetworkJoinOTAA starting
COM5,COM6
TX: work_mode 32 bytes to output stream.
TX: 32 bytes via COM6
RX sync:UART1 work mode: RUI_UART_NORAMAL
Current work_mode:LoRaWAN, join_mode:OTAA, Class: A
Initialization OK 

TX: region 33 bytes to output stream.
TX: 33 bytes via COM6
RX sync:OK 

TX: join_mode 32 bytes to output stream.
TX: 32 bytes via COM6
RX sync:OK 

TX: dev_eui 45 bytes to output stream.
TX: 45 bytes via COM6
RX sync:OK 

TX: app_eui 45 bytes to output stream.
TX: 45 bytes via COM6
RX sync:OK 

TX: app_key 61 bytes to output stream.
TX: 61 bytes via COM6
RX sync:OK 

TX: confirm 30 bytes to output stream.
TX: 30 bytes via COM6
RX sync:OK 

TX: join 9 bytes to output stream.
TX: 9 bytes via COM6
RX sync:
RX sync:
RX sync:
RX sync:
RX sync:OK Join Success

TX: send 43 bytes to output stream.
TX: 43 bytes via COM6
TX: send 43 bytes to output stream.
TX: 43 bytes via COM6
RX sync:OK 
at+recv=0,-59,9,0

In the Visual Studio 2019 debug out put I could see messages getting sent and then after a short delay they were visible in the TTN console.

I then modified the confirmed flag and in the TTN console I could see how they were processed differently.

Confirmed messages
Unconfirmed messages

I could receive messages but as the RAK 811 module can be configured to be a Class C device there didn’t appear to be a way to receive a message without sending one which seemed a bit odd.

The next step is to get Authentication By Personalisation(ABP) working.

nanoFramework RAK811 LoRaWAN library Part3

Factory Reset

When writing communications libraries one of the first things I try and get working is a “factory reset”. At some stage I will misconfigure the device so badly that it won’t work anymore and having a way to return to the device to its original configuration is really useful.

The RAK811 LPWAN Evaluation Board(EVB) test rig was based on an STM32F691DISCOVERY board which supports hardware (using D8 as I haven’t removed R11) and software reset with an AT command.

//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Copyright (c) June 2020, devMobile Software
//
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
//
//     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.
//
//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// nanoff --target ST_STM32F769I_DISCOVERY --update
//#define SERIAL_SYNC_READ
//#define HARDWARE_RESET
//#define SOFTWARE_RESTART
//#define DEVICE_STATUS
//#define LORA_STATUS
namespace devMobile.IoT.Rak811.FactoryReset
{
   using System;
   using System.Diagnostics;
   using System.Threading;
   using Windows.Devices.Gpio;
   using Windows.Devices.SerialCommunication;
   using Windows.Storage.Streams;
   
   public class Program
   {
      private const string SerialPortId = "COM6";

      public static void Main()
      {
         SerialDevice serialDevice;

         Debug.WriteLine("devMobile.IoT.Rak811.FactoryReset starting");

         Debug.WriteLine(Windows.Devices.SerialCommunication.SerialDevice.GetDeviceSelector());

         try
         {
#if HARDWARE_RESET
            GpioPin resetPin = GpioController.GetDefault().OpenPin(PinNumber('J', 4));
            resetPin.SetDriveMode(GpioPinDriveMode.Output);
            resetPin.Write(GpioPinValue.Low);
#endif
            serialDevice = SerialDevice.FromId(SerialPortId);

            // set parameters
            serialDevice.BaudRate = 9600;
            serialDevice.Parity = SerialParity.None;
            serialDevice.StopBits = SerialStopBitCount.One;
            serialDevice.Handshake = SerialHandshake.None;
            serialDevice.DataBits = 8;

            serialDevice.ReadTimeout = new TimeSpan(0, 0, 30);
            serialDevice.WriteTimeout = new TimeSpan(0, 0, 4);

            DataWriter outputDataWriter = new DataWriter(serialDevice.OutputStream);

#if SERIAL_SYNC_READ
            DataReader inputDataReader = new DataReader(serialDevice.InputStream);
#else
            serialDevice.DataReceived += SerialDevice_DataReceived;
#endif

            // set a watch char to be notified when it's available in the input stream
            serialDevice.WatchChar = '\n';

            while (true)
            {
#if HARDWARE_RESET
               resetPin.Write(GpioPinValue.High);
               Thread.Sleep(10);
               resetPin.Write(GpioPinValue.Low);
#endif

#if SOFTWARE_RESTART
               uint bytesWritten = outputDataWriter.WriteString("at+set_config=device:restart\r\n");
               Debug.WriteLine($"TX: {outputDataWriter.UnstoredBufferLength} bytes to output stream.");

               // calling the 'Store' method on the data writer actually sends the data
               uint txByteCount = outputDataWriter.Store();
               Debug.WriteLine($"TX: {txByteCount} bytes via {serialDevice.PortName}");
#endif

#if DEVICE_STATUS
               uint bytesWritten = outputDataWriter.WriteString("at+get_config=device:status\r\n");
               Debug.WriteLine($"TX: {outputDataWriter.UnstoredBufferLength} bytes to output stream.");

               // calling the 'Store' method on the data writer actually sends the data
               uint txByteCount = outputDataWriter.Store();
               Debug.WriteLine($"TX: {txByteCount} bytes via {serialDevice.PortName}");
#endif

#if LORA_STATUS
               uint bytesWritten = outputDataWriter.WriteString("at+get_config=lora:status\r\n");
               Debug.WriteLine($"TX: {outputDataWriter.UnstoredBufferLength} bytes to output stream.");

               // calling the 'Store' method on the data writer actually sends the data
               uint txByteCount = outputDataWriter.Store();
               Debug.WriteLine($"TX: {txByteCount} bytes via {serialDevice.PortName}");
#endif

#if SERIAL_SYNC_READ
               // June 2020 appears to be limited to 256 chars
               uint bytesRead = inputDataReader.Load(50);

               Debug.WriteLine($"RXs :{bytesRead} bytes read from {serialDevice.PortName}");

               if (bytesRead > 0)
               {
                  String response = inputDataReader.ReadString(bytesRead);
                  Debug.WriteLine($"RX sync:{response}");
               }
#endif

               Thread.Sleep(20000);
            }
         }
         catch (Exception ex)
         {
            Debug.WriteLine(ex.Message);
         }
      }

      private static void SerialDevice_DataReceived(object sender, SerialDataReceivedEventArgs e)
      {
         switch (e.EventType)
         {
            case SerialData.Chars:
               //Debug.WriteLine("RX SerialData.Chars");
               break;

            case SerialData.WatchChar:
               Debug.WriteLine("RX: SerialData.WatchChar");
               SerialDevice serialDevice = (SerialDevice)sender;

               using (DataReader inputDataReader = new DataReader(serialDevice.InputStream))
               {
                  inputDataReader.InputStreamOptions = InputStreamOptions.Partial;

                  // read all available bytes from the Serial Device input stream
                  uint bytesRead = inputDataReader.Load(serialDevice.BytesToRead);

                  Debug.WriteLine($"RXa: {bytesRead} bytes read from {serialDevice.PortName}");

                  if (bytesRead > 0)
                  {
                     String response = inputDataReader.ReadString(bytesRead);
                     Debug.WriteLine($"RX:{response}");
                  }
               }
               break;
            default:
               Debug.Assert(false, $"e.EventType {e.EventType} unknown");
               break;
         }
      }
      static int PinNumber(char port, byte pin)
      {
         if (port < 'A' || port > 'J')
            throw new ArgumentException();

         return ((port - 'A') * 16) + pin;
      }
   }
}

Initially I tried strobing D8 which is connected to the reset pin on the RAK811 module.

UART1 work mode: RUI_UART_NORAMAL
Current work_mode:LoRaWAN, join_mode:OTAA, Class: A
Initialization OK 

I then used the RAK Serial Port Tool to see if the configuration had changed

OK Work Mode: LoRaWAN
Region: AS923
Send_interval: 600s
Auto send status: false.
Join_mode: OTAA
DevEui: ...
AppEui: ...
AppKey: ...
Class: A
Joined Network:false
IsConfirm: false
AdrEnable: true
EnableRepeaterSupport: false
RX2_CHANNEL_FREQUENCY: 923200000, RX2_CHANNEL_DR:2
RX_WINDOW_DURATION: 3000ms
RECEIVE_DELAY_1: 1000ms
RECEIVE_DELAY_2: 2000ms
JOIN_ACCEPT_DELAY_1: 5000ms
JOIN_ACCEPT_DELAY_2: 6000ms
Current Datarate: 2
Primeval Datarate: 2
ChannelsTxPower: 0
UpLinkCounter: 0
DownLinkCounter: 0

The device reset but the settings appear not to have returned to factory.

I then tried the device:restart AT command

>>at+set_config=device:restart
UART1 work mode: RUI_UART_NORAMAL
Current work_mode:LoRaWAN, join_mode:OTAA, Class: A
Initialization OK 

>>at+get_config=lora:status
OK Work Mode: LoRaWAN
Region: AS923
Send_interval: 600s
Auto send status: false.
Join_mode: OTAA
DevEui: ...
AppEui: ...
AppKey: ...
Class: A
Joined Network:false
IsConfirm: false
AdrEnable: true
EnableRepeaterSupport: false
RX2_CHANNEL_FREQUENCY: 923200000, RX2_CHANNEL_DR:2
RX_WINDOW_DURATION: 3000ms
RECEIVE_DELAY_1: 1000ms
RECEIVE_DELAY_2: 2000ms
JOIN_ACCEPT_DELAY_1: 5000ms
JOIN_ACCEPT_DELAY_2: 6000ms
Current Datarate: 2
Primeval Datarate: 2
ChannelsTxPower: 0
UpLinkCounter: 0
DownLinkCounter: 0

The device settings appear not to have returned to factory.

After some experimentation it looks like the only way to get a factory reset maybe re-flashing the device.

nanoFramework RAK811 LoRaWAN library Part2

Shield Serial

My initial RAK811 LPWAN Evaluation Board(EVB) test rig was based on an STM32F7691DISCOVERY. I connected the EVB with jumper leads and sent the AT Command to request the LoRaWAN module version information

STM32F691Discovery with EVB connected with Jumpers
STM32F691Discovery with EVB connected with Jumpers

The STM32F691DISCOVERY board has an Arduino Uno R3 format socket which I wanted to be able to plug the EVB into. After removing R8,R17 & R19 I put the EVB on the STM32F691DISCOVERY and could still retrieve the RAK811 module version information.

STM32F691Discovery with EVB plugged into Arduino headers
The thread '<No Name>' (0x2) has exited with code 0 (0x0).
devMobile.IoT.Rfm9x.ShieldSerial starting
COM5,COM6
TX: 12 bytes to output stream.
TX: 12 bytes via COM6
RXs :19 bytes read from COM6
RX sync:OK V3.0.0.13.H.T3

TX: 12 bytes to output stream.
TX: 12 bytes via COM6
RXs :19 bytes read from COM6
RX sync:OK V3.0.0.13.H.T3

nanoFramework RAK811 LoRaWAN library Part1

Invalidating the warranty

Over the last couple of days I have been working on a nanoFramework C# library for my RAK811 LPWAN Evaluation Board(EVB) from RAK Wireless which I have been using with an Arduino Uno R3 device. My initial test rig is based on an STM32F691DISCOVERY board which has Arduino Uno R3 format socket for the EVB.

My first step was to check what serial ports were available (COM5 & COM6) on the STM32F691Discovery and what pins they were connected to. (COM6 Arduino D0 & D1). Then check that these would work with the EVB pin assignments.

RAK 811 EVB schematic pg1
RAK 811 EVB schematic pg2

My first test was was a simple loopback based on the nanoFramework samples Serial Communications example.

STM32F691Discovery with jumper loopback
STM32F691Discovery with jumper loopback
//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Copyright (c) June 2020, devMobile Software
//
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
//
//     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.
//
//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
//#define ESP32_WROOM   //nanoff --target ESP32_WROOM_32 --serialport COM4 --update
//#define NETDUINO3_WIFI   // nanoff --target NETDUINO3_WIFI --update
//#define MBN_QUAIL // nanoff --target MBN_QUAIL --update
//#define ST_NUCLEO64_F091RC // nanoff --target ST_NUCLEO64_F091RC --update
//#define ST_NUCLEO144_F746ZG //nanoff --target ST_NUCLEO144_F746ZG --update
#define ST_STM32F769I_DISCOVERY      // nanoff --target ST_STM32F769I_DISCOVERY --update 
namespace devMobile.IoT.Rak811.ShieldSerial
{
   using System;
   using System.Diagnostics;
   using System.Threading;
   using Windows.Devices.SerialCommunication;
   using Windows.Storage.Streams;

#if ESP32_WROOM_32_LORA_1_CHANNEL
   using nanoFramework.Hardware.Esp32;
#endif

   public class Program
   {
#if ESP32_WROOM
      private const string SerialPortId = "";
#endif
#if NETDUINO3_WIFI
      private const string SpiBusId = "";
#endif
#if MBN_QUAIL
      private const string SpiBusId = "";
#endif
#if ST_NUCLEO64_F091RC
      private const string SpiBusId = "";
#endif
#if ST_NUCLEO144_F746ZG
      private const string SpiBusId = "";
#endif
#if ST_STM32F429I_DISCOVERY
      private const string SpiBusId = "";
#endif
#if ST_STM32F769I_DISCOVERY
      private const string SerialPortId = "COM6";
#endif

      public static void Main()
      {
         SerialDevice serialDevice;

         Debug.WriteLine("devMobile.IoT.Rfm9x.ShieldSerial starting");

         Debug.WriteLine(Windows.Devices.SerialCommunication.SerialDevice.GetDeviceSelector());

         try
         {
            // set GPIO functions for COM2 (this is UART1 on ESP32)
            #if ESP32_WROOM
               Configuration.SetPinFunction(Gpio.IO04, DeviceFunction.COM2_TX);
               Configuration.SetPinFunction(Gpio.IO05, DeviceFunction.COM2_RX);
            #endif
            serialDevice = SerialDevice.FromId(SerialPortId);

            // set parameters
            serialDevice.BaudRate = 9600;
            serialDevice.Parity = SerialParity.None;
            serialDevice.StopBits = SerialStopBitCount.One;
            serialDevice.Handshake = SerialHandshake.None;
            serialDevice.DataBits = 8;

            serialDevice.ReadTimeout = new TimeSpan(0, 0, 30);
            serialDevice.WriteTimeout = new TimeSpan(0, 0, 4);

            DataWriter outputDataWriter = new DataWriter(serialDevice.OutputStream);

            #if SERIAL_SYNC_READ
               DataReader inputDataReader = new DataReader(serialDevice.InputStream);
            #else
               serialDevice.DataReceived += SerialDevice_DataReceived;
            #endif

            // set a watch char to be notified when it's available in the input stream
            serialDevice.WatchChar = '\n';

            while (true)
            {
               uint bytesWritten = outputDataWriter.WriteString("at+version\r\n");
               Debug.WriteLine($"TX: {outputDataWriter.UnstoredBufferLength} bytes to output stream.");

               // calling the 'Store' method on the data writer actually sends the data
               uint txByteCount = outputDataWriter.Store();
               Debug.WriteLine($"TX: {txByteCount} bytes via {serialDevice.PortName}");

#if SERIAL_SYNC_READ
               uint bytesRead = inputDataReader.Load(50);

               Debug.WriteLine($"RXs :{bytesRead} bytes read from {serialDevice.PortName}");

               if (bytesRead > 0)
               {
                  String response = inputDataReader.ReadString(bytesRead);
                  Debug.WriteLine($"RX sync:{response}");
               }
#endif

               Thread.Sleep(20000);
            }
         }
         catch (Exception ex)
         {
            Debug.WriteLine(ex.Message);
         }
      }

      private static void SerialDevice_DataReceived(object sender, SerialDataReceivedEventArgs e)
      {
         switch(e.EventType)
         {
            case SerialData.Chars:
               //Debug.WriteLine("RX SerialData.Chars");
               break;

            case SerialData.WatchChar:
               Debug.WriteLine("RX: SerialData.WatchChar");
               SerialDevice serialDevice = (SerialDevice)sender;

               using (DataReader inputDataReader = new DataReader(serialDevice.InputStream))
               {
                  inputDataReader.InputStreamOptions = InputStreamOptions.Partial;

                  // read all available bytes from the Serial Device input stream
                  uint bytesRead = inputDataReader.Load(serialDevice.BytesToRead);

                  Debug.WriteLine($"RXa: {bytesRead} bytes read from {serialDevice.PortName}");

                  if (bytesRead > 0)
                  {
                     String response = inputDataReader.ReadString(bytesRead);
                     Debug.WriteLine($"RX:{response}");
                  }
               }
               break;
            default:
               Debug.Assert(false, $"e.EventType {e.EventType} unknown");
               break;
         }
      }
   }
}

After some tinkering I could successfully transmit and receive a string.

The next step was to connect my EVB and sent the AT Command to request the LoRaWAN module version information

STM32F691Discovery with EVB connected with Jumpers
STM32F691Discovery with EVB connected with Jumpers
The thread '<No Name>' (0x2) has exited with code 0 (0x0).
devMobile.IoT.Rfm9x.ShieldSerial starting
COM5,COM6
TX: 12 bytes to output stream.
TX: 12 bytes via COM6
RX: SerialData.WatchChar
RXa: 19 bytes read from COM6
RX:OK V3.0.0.13.H.T3

TX: 12 bytes to output stream.
TX: 12 bytes via COM6
RX: SerialData.WatchChar
RXa: 19 bytes read from COM6
RX:OK V3.0.0.13.H.T3

The response was the same as I got with the RAK Serial Port Tool which was positive.

Version number check with RAK Serial Port tool

I need to do some more digging into how serialDevice.WatchChar = ‘\n’ works for synchronous reads.

Plus removing R17 & R19 there is no interaction with D11 & D10 which are normally used by the Serial Peripheral Interface(SPI) port so I can plug the shield directly into the STM32F691Discovery board.

My plan was to get an initial version of the library working with the STM32F691Discovery, then port it to the Netduino 3 Wifi (possible serial port pin issues) , ST_NUCLEO144_F746ZG, and ST_NUCLEO64_F091RC (possible issues with available flash).

RFM9X.NetNF on Github

The source code of my nanoFramework RFM9X/SX127X library is now available on GitHub. One test harness uses an STM32F429 Discovery and a dragino technology LoRa shield for Arduino with some jumper wires.

STM32F429 Discovery kit with Dragino Shield

The other uses Sparkfun LoRa Gateway 1 Channel ESP32 for a LoRaWAN.

A sample application which shows how to send/receive address/un-addressed payloads.

//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Copyright (c) April/May 2020, devMobile Software
//
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
//
//     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.
//
//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
//#define ADDRESSED_MESSAGES_PAYLOAD
#define ST_STM32F429I_DISCOVERY       //nanoff --target ST_STM32F429I_DISCOVERY --update
//#define ESP32_WROOM_32_LORA_1_CHANNEL   //nanoff --target ESP32_WROOM_32 --serialport COM4 --update
namespace devMobile.IoT.Rfm9x.LoRaDeviceClient
{
	using System;
	using System.Text;
	using System.Threading;

#if ESP32_WROOM_32_LORA_1_CHANNEL
	using nanoFramework.Hardware.Esp32;
#endif

	using devMobile.IoT.Rfm9x;

	class Program
	{
		const double Frequency = 915000000.0;
#if ST_STM32F429I_DISCOVERY
		private const string SpiBusId = "SPI5";
#endif
#if ESP32_WROOM_32_LORA_1_CHANNEL
		private const string SpiBusId = "SPI1";
#endif

		static void Main()
		{
			byte MessageCount = System.Byte.MaxValue;
#if ADDRESSED_MESSAGES_PAYLOAD
			const string HostName = "ESP32LoRa";
			const string DeviceName = "LoRaIoT1";
#else
			const string DeviceName = "ESP32LoRa";
#endif
#if ST_STM32F429I_DISCOVERY
			int chipSelectPinNumber = PinNumber('C', 2);
			int resetPinNumber = PinNumber('C', 3);
			int interruptPinNumber = PinNumber('A', 4);
#endif
#if ESP32_WROOM_32_LORA_1_CHANNEL
         int chipSelectPinNumber = Gpio.IO16;
         int interruptPinNumber = Gpio.IO26;

			Configuration.SetPinFunction(Gpio.IO12, DeviceFunction.SPI1_MISO);
			Configuration.SetPinFunction(Gpio.IO13, DeviceFunction.SPI1_MOSI);
			Configuration.SetPinFunction(Gpio.IO14, DeviceFunction.SPI1_CLOCK);

			Rfm9XDevice rfm9XDevice = new Rfm9XDevice(SpiBusId, chipSelectPinNumber, interruptPinNumber);
#endif
#if ST_STM32F429I_DISCOVERY
			Rfm9XDevice rfm9XDevice = new Rfm9XDevice(SpiBusId, chipSelectPinNumber, resetPinNumber, interruptPinNumber);
#endif
			rfm9XDevice.Initialise(Frequency, paBoost: true, rxPayloadCrcOn: true);

#if DEBUG
			rfm9XDevice.RegisterDump();
#endif

			rfm9XDevice.OnReceive += Rfm9XDevice_OnReceive;
#if ADDRESSED_MESSAGES_PAYLOAD
			rfm9XDevice.Receive(UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(DeviceName));
#else
			rfm9XDevice.Receive();
#endif
			rfm9XDevice.OnTransmit += Rfm9XDevice_OnTransmit;

			Thread.Sleep(10000);

			while (true)
			{
				string messageText = string.Format("Hello from {0} ! {1}", DeviceName, MessageCount);
				MessageCount -= 1;

				byte[] messageBytes = UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(messageText);
				Console.WriteLine(string.Format("{0}-TX {1} byte message {2}", DateTime.UtcNow.ToString("HH:mm:ss"), messageBytes.Length, messageText));
#if ADDRESSED_MESSAGES_PAYLOAD
				rfm9XDevice.Send(UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(HostName), messageBytes);
#else
				rfm9XDevice.Send(messageBytes);
#endif
				Thread.Sleep(10000);
			}
		}

		private static void Rfm9XDevice_OnReceive(object sender, Rfm9XDevice.OnDataReceivedEventArgs e)
		{
			try
			{
				// Remove unprintable characters from messages
				for (int index = 0; index < e.Data.Length; index++)
				{
					if ((e.Data[index] < 0x20) || (e.Data[index] > 0x7E))
					{
						e.Data[index] = 0x20;
					}
				}

				string messageText = UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetString(e.Data, 0, e.Data.Length);

#if ADDRESSED_MESSAGES_PAYLOAD
				string addressText = UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetString(e.Address, 0, e.Address.Length);

				Console.WriteLine(string.Format(@"{0}-RX From {1} PacketSnr {2} Packet RSSI {3}dBm RSSI {4}dBm ={5} ""{6}""", DateTime.UtcNow.ToString("HH:mm:ss"), addressText, e.PacketSnr, e.PacketRssi, e.Rssi, e.Data.Length, messageText));
#else
				Console.WriteLine(string.Format(@"{0}-RX PacketSnr {1} Packet RSSI {2}dBm RSSI {3}dBm ={4} ""{5}""", DateTime.UtcNow.ToString("HH:mm:ss"), e.PacketSnr, e.PacketRssi, e.Rssi, e.Data.Length, messageText));
#endif
			}
			catch (Exception ex)
			{
				Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
			}
		}

		private static void Rfm9XDevice_OnTransmit(object sender, Rfm9XDevice.OnDataTransmitedEventArgs e)
		{
			Console.WriteLine( string.Format("{0}-TX Done", DateTime.UtcNow.ToString("HH:mm:ss")));
		}

#if ST_STM32F429I_DISCOVERY
      static int PinNumber(char port, byte pin)
      {
         if (port < 'A' || port > 'J')
            throw new ArgumentException();

         return ((port - 'A') * 16) + pin;
      }
#endif
	}
}


The addressing support is pretty basic as my goal was a library that I could extend with optional functionality like tamper detection via signing and privacy via payload encryption, mesh network support etc.

The library works but should be treated as early beta.

nanoFramework LoRa library Part5

Receive Basic

This code implements the reception of messages builds on my transmit basic sample. I had to add a simple for loop to replace un-printable characters in the received message with spaces as nanoFramework UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetString was throwing exceptions.

23:06:19.172 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 94
23:06:29.556 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 96
23:06:40.274 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 98
23:06:51.064 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 100
23:07:02.012 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 102
23:07:12.534 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 104
23:07:17.657 -> Message: ⸮LoRaIoT1Maduino2at 50.2,ah 90,wsa 4,wsg 11,wd 184.13,r 0.00,
23:07:17.725 -> Length: 61
23:07:17.725 -> FirstChar: 136
23:07:17.793 -> RSSI: -81
23:07:17.793 -> Snr: 9.50
23:07:17.793 -> 
23:07:23.216 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 106
23:07:34.228 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 108
23:07:44.907 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 110
23:07:55.930 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 112

For testing this code I used the same version of the LoRaSetSyncWord example as Transmit Basic

   class Program
   {
#if ST_STM32F429I_DISCOVERY
      private const string SpiBusId = "SPI5";
#endif
#if ESP32_WROOM_32_LORA_1_CHANNEL
      private const string SpiBusId = "SPI1";
#endif

      static void Main()
      {
#if ST_STM32F429I_DISCOVERY
         int chipSelectPinNumber = PinNumber('C', 2);
         int resetPinNumber = PinNumber('C', 3);
#endif
#if ESP32_WROOM_32_LORA_1_CHANNEL
         int chipSelectPinNumber = Gpio.IO16;
#endif

         try
         {
#if ESP32_WROOM_32_LORA_1_CHANNEL
            Configuration.SetPinFunction(Gpio.IO12, DeviceFunction.SPI1_MISO);
            Configuration.SetPinFunction(Gpio.IO13, DeviceFunction.SPI1_MOSI);
            Configuration.SetPinFunction(Gpio.IO14, DeviceFunction.SPI1_CLOCK);
            Rfm9XDevice rfm9XDevice = new Rfm9XDevice(SpiBusId, chipSelectPinNumber);
#endif
#if ST_STM32F429I_DISCOVERY
            Rfm9XDevice rfm9XDevice = new Rfm9XDevice(SpiBusId, chipSelectPinNumber, resetPinNumber);
#endif
             Thread.Sleep(500);

            // Put device into LoRa + Sleep mode
            rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x01, 0b10000000); // RegOpMode 

            // Set the frequency to 915MHz
            byte[] frequencyWriteBytes = { 0xE4, 0xC0, 0x00 }; // RegFrMsb, RegFrMid, RegFrLsb
            rfm9XDevice.RegisterWrite(0x06, frequencyWriteBytes);

            rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x0F, 0x0); // RegFifoRxBaseAddress 

            rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x01, 0b10000101); // RegOpMode set LoRa & RxContinuous

            while (true)
            {
               // Wait until a packet is received, no timeouts in PoC
               Console.WriteLine("Receive-Wait");
               byte irqFlags = rfm9XDevice.RegisterReadByte(0x12); // RegIrqFlags
               while ((irqFlags & 0b01000000) == 0)  // wait until RxDone cleared
               {
                  Thread.Sleep(100);
                  irqFlags = rfm9XDevice.RegisterReadByte(0x12); // RegIrqFlags
                  Console.Write(".");
               }
               Console.WriteLine("");
               Console.WriteLine($"RegIrqFlags 0X{irqFlags:X2}");
               Console.WriteLine("Receive-Message");
               byte currentFifoAddress = rfm9XDevice.RegisterReadByte(0x10); // RegFifiRxCurrent
               rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x0d, currentFifoAddress); // RegFifoAddrPtr

               byte numberOfBytes = rfm9XDevice.RegisterReadByte(0x13); // RegRxNbBytes

               byte[] messageBytes = rfm9XDevice.RegisterRead(0x00, numberOfBytes); // RegFifo

               rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x0d, 0);
               rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x12, 0b11111111); // RegIrqFlags clear all the bits

               // Remove unprintable characters from messages
               for( int index = 0; index < messageBytes.Length; index++)
               {
                  if ((messageBytes[index] < 0x20) || (messageBytes[index] > 0x7E))
                  {
                     messageBytes[index] = 0x20;
                  }
               }

               string messageText = UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetString(messageBytes, 0, messageBytes.Length);
               Console.WriteLine($"Received {messageBytes.Length} byte message {messageText}");

               Console.WriteLine("Receive-Done");
            }
         }
         catch (Exception ex)
         {
            Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
         }
      }

#if ST_STM32F429I_DISCOVERY
      static int PinNumber(char port, byte pin)
      {
         if (port < 'A' || port > 'J')
            throw new ArgumentException();

         return ((port - 'A') * 16) + pin;
      }
#endif
   }

The receive code works reliably but has no error detection or correction capability.

The thread '<No Name>' (0x2) has exited with code 0 (0x0).
Receive-Wait
................................................................
RegIrqFlags 0X50
Receive-Message
Received 17 byte message HeLoRa World! 114
Receive-Done
Receive-Wait
.......................................................................................................
RegIrqFlags 0X50
Receive-Message
Received 17 byte message HeLoRa World! 116
Receive-Done
Receive-Wait
.....................
RegIrqFlags 0X50
Receive-Message
Received 60 byte message  LoRaIoT1Maduino2at 50.2,ah 90,wsa 3,wsg 5,wd 178.50,r 0.00,
Receive-Done
Receive-Wait
.......................................................................................
RegIrqFlags 0X50
Receive-Message
Received 17 byte message HeLoRa World! 118
Receive-Done
Receive-Wait

I will look at implementing some sort of carrier-sense multiple access with collision avoidance solution to reduce the number of corrupted messages when two (or possibly more devices) transmit at the same time.

nanoFramework LoRa library Part4B

Transmit Basic Revisited

After finding some possible SPI library issues (April 2020) with my STM32F429 Discovery + Dragino LoRa shield for Arduino test rig I wanted to trial my code on another nanoFramework platform.

I had ordered a Sparkfun LoRa Gateway 1 Channel ESP32 for a LoRaWAN research project from a local supplier and an unexpected “bonus” was that the ESP32 WROOM platform is supported by the nanoFramework.

Sparkfun LoRa Gateway 1 Channel with wire antenna

I am using this in conjunction with my Armtronix IA005 SX1276 loRa node and my STM32F429 Discovery + Dragino LoRa shield for Arduino test rig.

STM32F429 Discovery+ Dragino LoRa shield with Armtronix device

The code now works on STM32F429 Discovery and ESP32 WROOM platforms. (manual update nanoFramework.Hardware.Esp32 NuGet reference required)

Sparkfun LoRa Gateway 1 Channel schematic

One disadvantage of the SparkFun device is that the reset pin on the SX127X doesn’t appear to be connected to the ESP32 so I can’t factory reset the device in code.

//#define ST_STM32F429I_DISCOVERY       //nanoff --target ST_STM32F429I_DISCOVERY --update
#define ESP32_WROOM_32_LORA_1_CHANNEL   //nanoff --target ESP32_WROOM_32 --serialport COM4 --update
namespace devMobile.IoT.Rfm9x.TransmitBasic
{
   using System;
   using System.Text;
   using System.Threading;

   using Windows.Devices.Gpio;
   using Windows.Devices.Spi;

#if ESP32_WROOM_32_LORA_1_CHANNEL
   using nanoFramework.Hardware.Esp32;
#endif

   public sealed class Rfm9XDevice
   {
      private SpiDevice rfm9XLoraModem;
      private const byte RegisterAddressReadMask = 0X7f;
      private const byte RegisterAddressWriteMask = 0x80;

      public Rfm9XDevice(string spiPort, int chipSelectPin, int resetPin)
      {
         var settings = new SpiConnectionSettings(chipSelectPin)
         {
            ClockFrequency = 1000000,
            //DataBitLength = 8,
            Mode = SpiMode.Mode0,// From SemTech docs pg 80 CPOL=0, CPHA=0
            SharingMode = SpiSharingMode.Shared,
         };

         rfm9XLoraModem = SpiDevice.FromId(spiPort, settings);

         // Factory reset pin configuration
         GpioController gpioController = GpioController.GetDefault();
         GpioPin resetGpioPin = gpioController.OpenPin(resetPin);
         resetGpioPin.SetDriveMode(GpioPinDriveMode.Output);
         resetGpioPin.Write(GpioPinValue.Low);
         Thread.Sleep(10);
         resetGpioPin.Write(GpioPinValue.High);
         Thread.Sleep(10);
      }

      public Rfm9XDevice(string spiPort, int chipSelectPin)
      {
         var settings = new SpiConnectionSettings(chipSelectPin)
         {
            ClockFrequency = 1000000,
            Mode = SpiMode.Mode0,// From SemTech docs pg 80 CPOL=0, CPHA=0
            SharingMode = SpiSharingMode.Shared,
         };

         rfm9XLoraModem = SpiDevice.FromId(spiPort, settings);
      }

      public Byte RegisterReadByte(byte registerAddress)
      {
         byte[] writeBuffer = new byte[] { registerAddress &= RegisterAddressReadMask, 0x0 };
         byte[] readBuffer = new byte[writeBuffer.Length];

         rfm9XLoraModem.TransferFullDuplex(writeBuffer, readBuffer);

         return readBuffer[1];
      }

      public ushort RegisterReadWord(byte address)
      {
         byte[] writeBuffer = new byte[] { address &= RegisterAddressReadMask, 0x0, 0x0 };
         byte[] readBuffer = new byte[writeBuffer.Length];

         rfm9XLoraModem.TransferFullDuplex(writeBuffer, readBuffer);

         return (ushort)(readBuffer[2] + (readBuffer[1] << 8));
      }

      public byte[] RegisterRead(byte address, int length)
      {
         byte[] writeBuffer = new byte[length + 1];
         byte[] readBuffer = new byte[writeBuffer.Length];
         byte[] repyBuffer = new byte[length];

         writeBuffer[0] = address &= RegisterAddressReadMask;

         rfm9XLoraModem.TransferFullDuplex(writeBuffer, readBuffer);

         Array.Copy(readBuffer, 1, repyBuffer, 0, length);

         return repyBuffer;
      }

      public void RegisterWriteByte(byte address, byte value)
      {
         byte[] writeBuffer = new byte[] { address |= RegisterAddressWriteMask, value };
         byte[] readBuffer = new byte[writeBuffer.Length];

         rfm9XLoraModem.TransferFullDuplex(writeBuffer, readBuffer);
      }

      public void RegisterWriteWord(byte address, ushort value)
      {
         byte[] valueBytes = BitConverter.GetBytes(value);
         byte[] writeBuffer = new byte[] { address |= RegisterAddressWriteMask, valueBytes[0], valueBytes[1] };
         byte[] readBuffer = new byte[writeBuffer.Length];

         rfm9XLoraModem.TransferFullDuplex(writeBuffer,readBuffer);
      }

      public void RegisterWrite(byte address, byte[] bytes)
      {
         byte[] writeBuffer = new byte[1 + bytes.Length];
         byte[] readBuffer = new byte[writeBuffer.Length];

         Array.Copy(bytes, 0, writeBuffer, 1, bytes.Length);
         writeBuffer[0] = address |= RegisterAddressWriteMask;

         rfm9XLoraModem.TransferFullDuplex(writeBuffer, readBuffer);
      }

      public void RegisterDump()
      {
         Console.WriteLine("Register dump");
         for (byte registerIndex = 0; registerIndex <= 0x42; registerIndex++)
         {
            byte registerValue = this.RegisterReadByte(registerIndex);

            Console.WriteLine($"Register 0x{registerIndex:x2} - Value 0X{registerValue:x2}");
         }
      }
   }

   class Program
   {
#if ST_STM32F429I_DISCOVERY
      private const string SpiBusId = "SPI5";
#endif
#if ESP32_WROOM_32_LORA_1_CHANNEL
      private const string SpiBusId = "SPI1";
#endif

      static void Main()
      {
         int SendCount = 0;
#if ST_STM32F429I_DISCOVERY
         int chipSelectPinNumber = PinNumber('C', 2);
         int resetPinNumber = PinNumber('C', 3);
#endif
#if ESP32_WROOM_32_LORA_1_CHANNEL
         int chipSelectPinNumber = Gpio.IO16;
#endif
         try
         {
#if ESP32_WROOM_32_LORA_1_CHANNEL
            Configuration.SetPinFunction(Gpio.IO12, DeviceFunction.SPI1_MISO);
            Configuration.SetPinFunction(Gpio.IO13, DeviceFunction.SPI1_MOSI);
            Configuration.SetPinFunction(Gpio.IO14, DeviceFunction.SPI1_CLOCK);
            Rfm9XDevice rfm9XDevice = new Rfm9XDevice(SpiBusId, chipSelectPinNumber);
#endif
#if ST_STM32F429I_DISCOVERY
            Rfm9XDevice rfm9XDevice = new Rfm9XDevice(SpiBusId, chipSelectPinNumber, resetPinNumber);
#endif
            Thread.Sleep(500);

            // Put device into LoRa + Standby mode
            rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x01, 0b10000001); // RegOpMode 

            // Set the frequency to 915MHz
            byte[] frequencyWriteBytes = { 0xE4, 0xC0, 0x00 }; // RegFrMsb, RegFrMid, RegFrLsb
            rfm9XDevice.RegisterWrite(0x06, frequencyWriteBytes);

            // More power PA Boost
            rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x09, 0b10000000); // RegPaConfig

            rfm9XDevice.RegisterDump();

            while (true)
            {
               rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x0E, 0x0); // RegFifoTxBaseAddress 

               // Set the Register Fifo address pointer
               rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x0D, 0x0); // RegFifoAddrPtr 

               string messageText = $"Hello LoRa {SendCount += 1}!";

               // load the message into the fifo
               byte[] messageBytes = UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(messageText);
               rfm9XDevice.RegisterWrite(0x0, messageBytes); // RegFifo

               // Set the length of the message in the fifo
               rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x22, (byte)messageBytes.Length); // RegPayloadLength

               Console.WriteLine($"Sending {messageBytes.Length} bytes message {messageText}");
               /// Set the mode to LoRa + Transmit
               rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x01, 0b10000011); // RegOpMode 

               // Wait until send done, no timeouts in PoC
               Console.WriteLine("Send-wait");
               byte IrqFlags = rfm9XDevice.RegisterReadByte(0x12); // RegIrqFlags
               while ((IrqFlags & 0b00001000) == 0)  // wait until TxDone cleared
               {
                  Thread.Sleep(10);
                  IrqFlags = rfm9XDevice.RegisterReadByte(0x12); // RegIrqFlags
                  Console.WriteLine(".");
               }
               Console.WriteLine("");
               rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x12, 0b00001000); // clear TxDone bit
               Console.WriteLine("Send-Done");

               Thread.Sleep(10000);
            }
         }
         catch (Exception ex)
         {
            Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
         }
      }

#if ST_STM32F429I_DISCOVERY
      static int PinNumber(char port, byte pin)
      {
         if (port < 'A' || port > 'J')
            throw new ArgumentException();

         return ((port - 'A') * 16) + pin;
      }
#endif
   }
}

When I initially ran the application in Visual Studio 2019 the text below was displayed in the output window.

Register dump
Register 0x00 - Value 0X00
Register 0x01 - Value 0X80
Register 0x02 - Value 0X1A
Register 0x03 - Value 0X0B
Register 0x04 - Value 0X00
…
Register 0x3E - Value 0X00
Register 0x3F - Value 0X00
Register 0x40 - Value 0X00
Register 0x41 - Value 0X00
Register 0x42 - Value 0X12
Sending 13 bytes message Hello LoRa 1!
Send-wait
.
.
.
.
.
Send-Done
Sending 13 bytes message Hello LoRa 2!
Send-wait
.
.
.
.
.
Send-Done

I could the see the messages arriving at the Armtronix device in the Arduino monitor.

18:21:46.299 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 188
18:21:48.700 -> Message: p8V⸮⸮⸮⸮⸮Kg
18:21:48.700 -> Length: 13
18:21:48.734 -> FirstChar: 112
18:21:48.734 -> RSSI: -70
18:21:48.734 -> Snr: 9.50
18:21:48.769 -> 
18:21:50.193 -> Message: Hello LoRa 10!
18:21:50.193 -> Length: 14
18:21:50.226 -> FirstChar: 72
18:21:50.226 -> RSSI: -49
18:21:50.226 -> Snr: 10.00
18:21:50.260 -> 
18:21:56.652 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 190
18:21:58.765 -> Message: Hello LoRa 2!
18:21:58.765 -> Length: 13
18:21:58.798 -> FirstChar: 72
18:21:58.798 -> RSSI: -71
18:21:58.798 -> Snr: 9.75
18:21:58.832 -> 
18:22:00.268 -> Message: Hello LoRa 11!
18:22:00.268 -> Length: 14
18:22:00.302 -> FirstChar: 72
18:22:00.302 -> RSSI: -49
18:22:00.302 -> Snr: 10.00
18:22:00.336 -> 

The first message was getting corrupted (only when running in the debugger) which after some trial and error I think was most probably due to my RegOpMode register mode configuration.

SX127X RegOpMode details
// Put device into LoRa + Sleep mode
rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x01, 0b10000000);

// Put device into LoRa + Standby mode
rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x01, 0b10000001); 

After a couple of years and half a dozen platform ports still finding bugs in my samples…