Azure IoT Hub, Event Grid to Application Insights

For a second Proof of Concept (PoC) I wanted to upload sensor data from my MQTT LoRa Telemetry Field Gateway to an Azure IoT Hub, then using Azure EventGrid subscribe to the stream of telemetry data events, logging the payloads in Azure Application Insights (the aim was minimal code so no database etc.).

The first step was to create and deploy a simple Azure Function for unpacking the telemetry event payload.

Azure IoT Hub Azure Function Handler

Then wire the Azure function to the Microsoft.Devices.Device.Telemetry Event Type

Azure IoT Hub Event Metrics

On the Windows 10 IoT Core device in the Event Tracing Window(ETW) logging on the device I could see LoRa messages arriving and being unpacked.

Windows 10 Device ETW showing message payload

Then in Application Insights after some mucking around with code I could see in a series of Trace statements the event payload as it was unpacked.

{"id":"29108ebf-e5d5-7b95-e739-7d9048209d53","topic":"/SUBSCRIPTIONS/12345678-9012-3456-7890-123456789012/RESOURCEGROUPS/AZUREIOTHUBEVENTGRIDAZUREFUNCTION/PROVIDERS/MICROSOFT.DEVICES/IOTHUBS/FIELDGATEWAYHUB",
"subject":"devices/MQTTNetClient",
"eventType":"Microsoft.Devices.DeviceTelemetry",
"eventTime":"2020-02-01T04:30:51.427Z",
"data":
{
 "properties":{},
"systemProperties":{"iothub-connection-device-id":"MQTTNetClient","iothub-connection-auth-method":"{\"scope\":\"device\",\"type\":\"sas\",\"issuer\":\"iothub\",\"acceptingIpFilterRule\":null}",
"iothub-connection-auth-generation-id":"637149890997219611",
"iothub-enqueuedtime":"2020-02-01T04:30:51.427Z",
"iothub-message-source":"Telemetry"
},
"body":"eyJPZmZpY2VUZW1wZXJhdHVyZSI6IjIyLjUiLCJPZmZpY2VIdW1pZGl0eSI6IjkyIn0="
},
"dataVersion":"",
"metadataVersion":"1"
}
Application Insights logging with message unpacking
Application Insights logging message payload

Then in the last log entry the decoded message payload

/*
    Copyright ® 2020 Feb devMobile Software, All Rights Reserved
 
    MIT License

    Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
    of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
    in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
    to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
    copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
    furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

    The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all
    copies or substantial portions of the Software.

    THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
    IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
    FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
    AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
    LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
    OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE
    SOFTWARE

    Default URL for triggering event grid function in the local environment.
    http://localhost:7071/runtime/webhooks/EventGrid?functionName=functionname
 */
namespace EventGridProcessorAzureIotHub
{
   using System;
   using System.IO;
   using System.Reflection;

   using Microsoft.Azure.WebJobs;
   using Microsoft.Azure.EventGrid.Models;
   using Microsoft.Azure.WebJobs.Extensions.EventGrid;

   using log4net;
   using log4net.Config;
   using Newtonsoft.Json;

   public static class Telemetry
    {
        [FunctionName("Telemetry")]
        public static void Run([EventGridTrigger]Microsoft.Azure.EventGrid.Models.EventGridEvent eventGridEvent, ExecutionContext executionContext )//, TelemetryClient telemetryClient)
        {
			ILog log = log4net.LogManager.GetLogger(System.Reflection.MethodBase.GetCurrentMethod().DeclaringType);

		   var logRepository = LogManager.GetRepository(Assembly.GetEntryAssembly());
			XmlConfigurator.Configure(logRepository, new FileInfo(Path.Combine(executionContext.FunctionAppDirectory, "log4net.config")));

         log.Info($"eventGridEvent.Data-{eventGridEvent}");

         log.Info($"eventGridEvent.Data.ToString()-{eventGridEvent.Data.ToString()}");

        IotHubDeviceTelemetryEventData iOThubDeviceTelemetryEventData = (IotHubDeviceTelemetryEventData)JsonConvert.DeserializeObject(eventGridEvent.Data.ToString(), typeof(IotHubDeviceTelemetryEventData));

         log.Info($"iOThubDeviceTelemetryEventData.Body.ToString()-{iOThubDeviceTelemetryEventData.Body.ToString()}");

         byte[] base64EncodedBytes = System.Convert.FromBase64String(iOThubDeviceTelemetryEventData.Body.ToString());

         log.Info($"System.Text.Encoding.UTF8.GetString(-{System.Text.Encoding.UTF8.GetString(base64EncodedBytes)}");
      }
	}
}

Overall it took roughly half a page of code (mainly generated by a tool) to unpack and log the contents of an Azure IoT Hub EventGrid payload to Application Insights.

Azure IOT Hub and Event Grid Part1

I have one an Azure IoT Hub LoRa Telemetry Field Gateway running in my office and I wanted to process the data collected by the sensors around my property without using a Software as a Service(SaaS) Internet of Things (IoT) package.

Rather than lots of screen grabs of my configuration steps I figured people reading this series of posts would be able to figure the details out themselves.

Raspberry PI with M2M LoRa Hat

I created an Azure Resource Group for this project, and created an Azure IoT Hub.

Azure Resource Group with IoT Hub

I then provisioned an Azure IoT Hub device so I could get the connection string for my Windows 10 Azure IoT Hub LoRa Telemetry Field gateway.

LoRa Field Gateway Provisioned in Azure IoT Hub

I downloaded the JSON configuration file template from my Windows 10 device (which is created on first startup after installation) and configured the Azure IoT Hub connection string.

{
   "AzureIoTHubDeviceConnectionString": "HostName=FieldGatewayHub.azure-devices.net;DeviceId=LoRa915MHz;SharedAccessKey=123456789012345678901234567890123456789/arg=",
   "AzureIoTHubTransportType": "amqp",
   "SensorIDIsDeviceIDSensorID": false,
   "Address": "LoRaIoT1",
   "Frequency": 915000000.0,
   "PABoost": true
}

I then uploaded this to my Windows 10 IoT Core device and restarted the Azure IoT Hub Field gateway so it picked up the new settings.

I could then see on the device messages from sensor nodes being unpacked and uploaded to my Azure IoT Hub.

ETW logging on device

In the Azure IoT Hub metrics I graphed the number of devices connected and the number of telemetry messages sent and could see my device connect then start uploading telemetry.

Azure IoT Hub metrics

One of my customers uses Azure Event Grid for application integration and I wanted to explore using it in an IoT solution. The first step was to create an Event Grid Domain.

I then used the Azure IoT Hub Events tab to wire up these events.

  • Microsoft.Devices.DeviceConnected
  • Microsoft.Devices.DeviceDisconnected
  • Microsoft.Devices.DeviceTelemetry
Azure IoT Hub Event Metrics

To confirm my event subscriptions were successful I previously found the “simplest” approach was to use an Azure storage queue endpoint. I had to create an Azure Storage Account with two Azure Storage Queues one for device connectivity (.DeviceConnected & .DeviceDisconnected) events and the other for device telemetry (.DeviceTelemetry) events.

I created a couple of other subscriptions so I could compare the different Event schemas (Event Grid Schema & Cloud Event Schema v1.0). At this stage I didn’t configure any Filters or Additional Features.

Azure IoT Hub Telemetry Event Metrics

I use Cerebrate Cerculean for monitoring and managing a couple of other customer projects so I used it to inspect the messages in the storage queues.

Cerebrate Ceculean Storage queue Inspector

The message are quite verbose

{
"id":"b48b6376-b7f4-ee7d-82d9-12345678901a",
"source":"/SUBSCRIPTIONS/12345678-901234789-0123-456789012345/RESOURCEGROUPS/AZUREIOTHUBEVENTGRIDAZUREFUNCTION/PROVIDERS/MICROSOFT.DEVICES/IOTHUBS/FIELDGATEWAYHUB",
"specversion":"1.0",
"type":"Microsoft.Devices.DeviceTelemetry",
"dataschema":"#",
"subject":"devices/LoRa915MHz",
"time":"2020-01-24T04:27:30.842Z","data":
{"properties":{},
"systemProperties":{"iothub-connection-device-id":"LoRa915MHz",
"iothub-connection-auth-method":"{\"scope\":\"device\",\"type\":\"sas\",\"issuer\":\"iothub\",\"acceptingIpFilterRule\":null}",
"iothub-connection-auth-generation-id":"637149227434620853",
"iothub-enqueuedtime":"2020-01-24T04:27:30.842Z",
"iothub-message-source":"Telemetry"},
"body":"eyJQYWNrZXRTTlIiOiIxMC4wIiwiUGFja2V0UlNTSSI6LTY5LCJSU1NJIjotMTA5LCJEZXZpY2VBZGRyZXNzQkNEIjoiNEQtNjEtNjQtNzUtNjktNkUtNkYtMzIiLCJhdCI6Ijc2LjYiLCJhaCI6IjU4Iiwid3NhIjoiMiIsIndzZyI6IjUiLCJ3ZCI6IjMyMi44OCIsInIiOiIwLjAwIn0="
}
}

The message payload is base64 encoded, so I used an online tool to decode it.

{
 PacketSNR":"10.0",
"PacketRSSI":-69,
"RSSI":-109,
"DeviceAddressBCD":"4D-61-64-75-69-6E-6F-32",
"at":"76.6",
"ah":"58",
"wsa":"2",
"wsg":"5",
"wd":"322.88",
"r":"0.00"
}

Without writing any code (I will script the configuration) I could upload sensor data to an Azure IoT Hub, subscribe to a selection of events the Azure IoT Hub publishes and then inspect them in an Azure Storage Queue.

I did notice that the .DeviceConnected and .DeviceDisconnected events did take a while to arrive. When I started the field gateway application on the device I would get several DeviceTelemetry events before the DeviceConnected event arrived.

Azure Function Log4Net configuration

This post was inspired by the couple of hours lost from my life yesterday while I figured out how to get Apache Log4Net and Azure Application Insights working in an Azure Function built with .Net Core 2.X.

After extensive searching I found a couple of relevant blog posts but these had complex approaches and I wanted to keep the churn in the codebase I was working on to an absolute minimum.

With the different versions of the libraries involved (Late March 2019) this was what worked for me so YMMV. To provide the simplest possible example I have created a TimerTrigger which logs information via Log4Net to Azure Application Insights.

Initially the Log4Net configuration wasn’t loaded because its location is usually configured in the AssemblyInfo.cs file and .Net Core 2.x code doesn’t have one.

// You can specify all the values or you can default the Build and Revision Numbers
// by using the '*' as shown below:
// [assembly: AssemblyVersion("1.0.*")]
[assembly: AssemblyVersion("1.0.0.0")]
[assembly: AssemblyFileVersion("1.0.0.0")]
[assembly: log4net.Config.XmlConfigurator]

I figured I would have to manually load the Log4Net configuration and had to look at the file system of machine running the function to figure out where the Log4Net XML configuration file was getting copied to.

The “Copy to output directory” setting is important

Then I had to get the Dependency Injection (DI) framework to build an ExecutionContext for me so I could get the FunctionAppDirectory to combine with the Log4Net config file name. I used Path.Combine which is more robust and secure than manually concatenating segments of a path together.

/*
    Copyright ® 2019 March devMobile Software, All Rights Reserved
 
    MIT License
...
*/
namespace ApplicationInsightsAzureFunctionLog4NetClient
{
	using System;
	using System.IO;
	using System.Reflection;
	using log4net;
	using log4net.Config;
	using Microsoft.ApplicationInsights.Extensibility;
	using Microsoft.Azure.WebJobs;

	public static class ApplicationInsightsTimer
	{
		[FunctionName("ApplicationInsightsTimerLog4Net")]
		public static void Run([TimerTrigger("0 */1 * * * *")]TimerInfo myTimer, ExecutionContext executionContext)
		{
			ILog log = log4net.LogManager.GetLogger(System.Reflection.MethodBase.GetCurrentMethod().DeclaringType);

			TelemetryConfiguration.Active.InstrumentationKey = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("InstrumentationKey", EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process);

			var logRepository = LogManager.GetRepository(Assembly.GetEntryAssembly());
			XmlConfigurator.Configure(logRepository, new FileInfo(Path.Combine(executionContext.FunctionAppDirectory, "log4net.config")));

			log.Debug("This is a Log4Net Debug message");
			log.Info("This is a Log4Net Info message");
			log.Warn("This is a Log4Net Warning message");
			log.Error("This is a Log4Net Error message");
			log.Fatal("This is a Log4Net Fatal message");

			TelemetryConfiguration.Active.TelemetryChannel.Flush();
		}
	}
}

Log4Net logging in Azure Application Insights

The latest code for my Azure Function Log4net to Applications Insights sample along with some samples for other logging platforms is available on GitHub.