Azure IoT Central Connectivity Part4

The Things Network(TTN) Friendly Commands

I have built a several Proof of Concept(PoC) applications (Azure IoT Central Basic Telemetry, Basic Commands, and Request Commands) to explore to how an Azure IoT Central integration with TTN could work. This blog post is about how to configure queued and non queued Cloud to Device(C2D) Commands with request parameters so they should work with my TTN Message Queue Telemetry Transport(MQTT) Data API connector.

I have focused on commands with Analog values but the same approach should be valid for other parameter types like Boolean, Date, DateTime, Double, Duration, Enumeration, Float, Geopoint, Vector, Integer, Long, String, and Time.

Multiple versions of my Azure IoT Central templates

There was a lot of “trial and error” (26 template versions) required to figure out how to configure commands and queued commands so they can and used in TTN downlink payloads.

{
  "end_device_ids": {
    "device_id": "dev1",
    "application_ids": {
      "application_id": "app1"
    },
    "dev_eui": "4200000000000000",
    "join_eui": "4200000000000000",
    "dev_addr": "00E6F42A"
  },
  "correlation_ids": [
    "my-correlation-id",
    "..."
  ],
  "downlink_ack": {
    "session_key_id": "AWnj0318qrtJ7kbudd8Vmw==",
    "f_port": 15,
    "f_cnt": 11,
    "frm_payload": "....",
    "decoded_payload": 
    {
      "Value_0":"1.23"
      ...
    }
    "confirmed": true,
    "priority": "NORMAL",
    "correlation_ids": [
      "my-correlation-id",
      "..."
    ]
  }
}

My Azure IoT Central client application displays the generated message message including the decoded_payload field which is used by the built in Cayenned Low Power Protocol(LPP) decoder/encoder and other custom encoders/decoders.

Azure IoT Central commands for TTN/TTI integration

From the “Device Commands” form I can send commands and a queued commands which have float parameters or object parameters which contain one or more float values in a JSON payload.

For commands which call the methodHander which was been registered by calling SetMethodDefaultHandlerAsync the request payload can be JSON or plain text. If the payload is valid JSON it is “grafted”(couldn’t think of a better word) into the decoded_payload field. If the payload is not valid a JSON object with the method name as the “name” and the text payload as the value is added the decoded_payload.

private static async Task<MethodResponse> MethodCallbackDefaultHandler(MethodRequest methodRequest, object userContext)
{
   AzureIoTMethodHandlerContext receiveMessageHandlerConext = (AzureIoTMethodHandlerContext)userContext;

   Console.WriteLine($"Default handler method {methodRequest.Name} was called.");

   Console.WriteLine($"Payload:{methodRequest.DataAsJson}");
   Console.WriteLine();

   if (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(methodRequest.Name))
   {
      Console.WriteLine($"   Method Request Name null or white space");
      return new MethodResponse(400);
   }

   string payloadText = Encoding.UTF8.GetString(methodRequest.Data);
   if (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(payloadText))
   {
       Console.WriteLine($"   Payload null or white space");
       return new MethodResponse(400);
   }

   // At this point would check to see if Azure DeviceClient is in cache, this is so nasty
   if ( String.Compare( methodRequest.Name, "Analog_Output_1", true) ==0 )
   {
      Console.WriteLine($"   Device not found");
      return new MethodResponse(UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes("Device not found"), 404);
   }

   JObject payload;

   if (IsValidJSON(payloadText))
   {
      payload = JObject.Parse(payloadText);
   }
   else
   {
      payload = new JObject
      {
         { methodRequest.Name, payloadText }
      };
   }

   string downlinktopic = $"v3/{receiveMessageHandlerConext.ApplicationId}@{receiveMessageHandlerConext.TenantId}/devices/{receiveMessageHandlerConext.DeviceId}/down/push";

   DownlinkPayload downlinkPayload = new DownlinkPayload()
   {
      Downlinks = new List<Downlink>()
      {
         new Downlink()
         {
            Confirmed = false,
            //PayloadRaw = messageBody,
            PayloadDecoded = payload,
            Priority = DownlinkPriority.Normal,
            Port = 10,
            /*
            CorrelationIds = new List<string>()
            {
               methodRequest.LockToken
            }
            */
         }
      }
   };

   Console.WriteLine($"TTN Topic :{downlinktopic}");
   Console.WriteLine($"TTN downlink JSON :{JsonConvert.SerializeObject(downlinkPayload, Formatting.Indented)}");

   return new MethodResponse(200);
}
Configuration of unqueued Commands with a typed payload
The output of my test harness for a Command for a typed payload
Configuring fields of object payload(JSON)

A JSON request payload also supports downlink messages with more that one value.

The output of my test harness for a Command with an object payload(JSON)

For queued commands which call the ReceiveMessageHandler which has was registered by calling SetReceiveMessageHandler the request payload is JSON or plain text.

private async static Task ReceiveMessageHandler(Message message, object userContext)
{
   AzureIoTMessageHandlerContext receiveMessageHandlerConext = (AzureIoTMessageHandlerContext)userContext;

   Console.WriteLine($"ReceiveMessageHandler handler method was called.");

   Console.WriteLine($" Message ID:{message.MessageId}");
   Console.WriteLine($" Message Schema:{message.MessageSchema}");
   Console.WriteLine($" Correlation ID:{message.CorrelationId}");
   Console.WriteLine($" Lock Token:{message.LockToken}");
   Console.WriteLine($" Component name:{message.ComponentName}");
   Console.WriteLine($" To:{message.To}");
   Console.WriteLine($" Module ID:{message.ConnectionModuleId}");
   Console.WriteLine($" Device ID:{message.ConnectionDeviceId}");
   Console.WriteLine($" User ID:{message.UserId}");
   Console.WriteLine($" CreatedAt:{message.CreationTimeUtc}");
   Console.WriteLine($" EnqueuedAt:{message.EnqueuedTimeUtc}");
   Console.WriteLine($" ExpiresAt:{message.ExpiryTimeUtc}");
   Console.WriteLine($" Delivery count:{message.DeliveryCount}");
   Console.WriteLine($" InputName:{message.InputName}");
   Console.WriteLine($" SequenceNumber:{message.SequenceNumber}");

   foreach (var property in message.Properties)
   {
      Console.WriteLine($"   Key:{property.Key} Value:{property.Value}");
   }

   Console.WriteLine($" Content encoding:{message.ContentEncoding}");
   Console.WriteLine($" Content type:{message.ContentType}");
   string payloadText = Encoding.UTF8.GetString(message.GetBytes());
   Console.WriteLine($" Content:{payloadText}");
   Console.WriteLine();

   if (!message.Properties.ContainsKey("method-name"))
   {
      await receiveMessageHandlerConext.AzureIoTHubClient.RejectAsync(message);
      Console.WriteLine($"   Property method-name not found");
      return;
   }

   string methodName = message.Properties["method-name"];
   if (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace( methodName))
   {
      await receiveMessageHandlerConext.AzureIoTHubClient.RejectAsync(message);
      Console.WriteLine($"   Property null or white space");
      return;
   }

   if (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(payloadText))
   {
      await receiveMessageHandlerConext.AzureIoTHubClient.RejectAsync(message);
      Console.WriteLine($"   Payload null or white space");
      return;
   }

   JObject payload;

   if (IsValidJSON(payloadText))
   {
      payload = JObject.Parse(payloadText);
   }
   else
   {
      payload = new JObject
      {
         { methodName, payloadText }
      };
   }

   string downlinktopic = $"v3/{receiveMessageHandlerConext.ApplicationId}@{receiveMessageHandlerConext.TenantId}/devices/{receiveMessageHandlerConext.DeviceId}/down/push";

   DownlinkPayload downlinkPayload = new DownlinkPayload()
   {
      Downlinks = new List<Downlink>()
      {
         new Downlink()
         {
            Confirmed = false,
            //PayloadRaw = messageBody,
            PayloadDecoded = payload,
            Priority = DownlinkPriority.Normal,
            Port = 10,
            CorrelationIds = new List<string>()
            {
               message.LockToken
            }
         }
      }
   };

   Console.WriteLine($"TTN Topic :{downlinktopic}");
   Console.WriteLine($"TTN downlink JSON :{JsonConvert.SerializeObject(downlinkPayload, Formatting.Indented)}");

   //await receiveMessageHandlerConext.AzureIoTHubClient.AbandonAsync(message); // message retries
   //await receiveMessageHandlerConext.AzureIoTHubClient.CompleteAsync(message);
   await receiveMessageHandlerConext.AzureIoTHubClient.CompleteAsync(message.LockToken);
   //await receiveMessageHandlerConext.AzureIoTHubClient.RejectAsync(message); // message gone no retry
}

When I initiated an Analog queued command the message handler was invoked with the name of the command capability (Analog_Output_2) in a message property called “method-name”. For a typed parameter the message content was a string representation of the value. For an object parameter the payload contains a JSON representation of the request field(s)

The output of my test harness for a Queued Command with a typed payload

A JSON request payload supports downlink message with more that one value.

The output of my test harness for a Queued Command with an object payload(JSON)

The choice of Value_0, Value_1 (I think they are float64 type) etc. for the decoded_payload is specified in the Cayenne LPP downlink decode/encoder source code.

The context information for both comments and queued commands provides additional information required to construct the MQTT topic for publishing the downlink messages.

For queued commands the correlation_id will contain the message.LockToken so that messages can be Abandoned, Completed or Rejected. The MQTT broker publishes a series of topics so the progress of the transmission of downlink message can be monitored.

If the device is not known the Abandon method will be called immediately. For command messages Completed will be called as soon as the message is “sent”

  • v3/{application id}@{tenant id}/devices/{device id}/down/queued
  • v3/{application id}@{tenant id}/devices/{device id}/down/sent
  • v3/{application id}@{tenant id}/devices/{device id}/down/ack
  • v3/{application id}@{tenant id}/devices/{device id}/down/nack
  • v3/{application id}@{tenant id}/devices/{device id}/down/failed

For queued messages the point in the delivery process where the Abandoned, Completed and Rejected methods will be called will be configurable.

Azure IoT Central Connectivity Part3

Request Commands

I have built a couple of proof of Concept(PoC) applications to explore the Basic Telemetry and Basic Command functionality of Azure IoT Central. This blog post is about queued and non queued Cloud to Device(C2D) Commands with request parameters.

I initially created an Azure IoT Central Device Template with command and telemetry device capabilities.

“Collapsed” Command Request template
Command Request Template digital commands

I tried typed request and object based parameters to explorer how an integration with The Things Network(TTN)/The Things Industries(TTI) using the Message Queue Telemetry Transport(MQTT) interface could work.

Object parameter schema designer

With object based parameters the request JSON could contain more than one value though the validation of user provided information didn’t appear to be as robust.

Object parameter schema definition

I “migrated” my third preconfigured device to the CommandRequest template to see how the commands with Request parameters interacted with my PoC application.

After “migrating” my device I went back and created a Template view so I could visualise the simulated telemetry from my PoC application and provide a way to initiate commands (Didn’t really need four command tiles as they all open the Device commands form).

CommandRequest device template default view

From the Device Commands form I could send commands and a queued commands which had analog or digital parameters.

Device Three Command Tab

When I initiated an Analog non-queued command the default method handler was invoked with the name of the command capability (Analog_Output_1) as the method name and the payload contained a JSON representation of the request values(s). With a typed parameter a string representation of the value was in the message payload. With a typed parameter a string representation of the value was in the message payload rather than JSON.

Console application displaying Analog request and Analog Request queued commands

When I initiated an Analog queued command the message handler was invoked with the name of the command capability (Analog_Output_2) in a message property called “method-name” and the payload contained a JSON representation of the request value(s). With a typed parameter a string representation of the value was in the message payload rather than JSON.

When I initiated a Digital non-queued command the default method handler was invoked with the name of the command capability (Digital_Output_1) as the method name and the payload contained a JSON representation of the request values(s). With a typed parameter a string representation of the value was in the message payload rather than JSON.

Console application displaying Digital request and Digital Request queued commands

When I initiated a Digital queued command the message handler was invoked with the name of the command capability(Digital_Output_2) in a message property called “method-name” and the payload contained a JSON representation of the request value(s). With a typed parameter a string representation of the value was in the message payload rather than JSON.

The validation of user input wasn’t as robust as I expected, with problems selecting checkboxes with a mouse when there were several Boolean fields. I often had to click on a nearby input field and use the TAB button to navigate to the desired checkbox. I also had problems with ISO 8601 format date validation as the built in Date Picker returned a month, day, year date which was not editable and wouldn’t pass validation.

The next logical step would be to look at commands with a Response parameter but as the MQTT interface is The Things Network(TTN) and The Things Industries(TTI) is asynchronous and devices reporting every 5 minutes to a couple of times a day there could be a significant delay between sending a message and receiving an optional delivery confirmation or response.

Azure IoT Central Connectivity Part2

Basic Commands

I have been struggling with making The Things Network(TTN) and The Things Industries(TTI) uplink/downlink messages work well Azure IoT Central. To explore different messaging approaches I have built a proof of Concept(PoC) application which simulates TTN/TTI connectivity to an Azure IoT Hub, or Azure IoT Central.

This blog post is about queued and non queued Cloud to Device(C2D) commands without request or response parameters. I have mostly used non queued commands in other projects (my Azure IoT Hub LoRa and RF24L01 gateways) to “Restart” devices etc..

The first step was to create an Azure IoT Central Device Template with command and telemetry device capabilities.

CommandBasic device template device with command & telemetry capabilities

I then “migrated” my second preconfigured device to the CommandBasic template.

Migrating a device to TelemetryBasic template

I then went back and created a Template view to visualise the telemetry from my console application and initiate commands.

CommandBasic device template default view

I modified the PoC application adding handlers for Methods (SetMethodDefaultHandlerAsync) and Messages (SetReceiveMessageHandlerAsync).

private static async Task ApplicationCore(CommandLineOptions options)
{
   DeviceClient azureIoTHubClient;
   Timer MessageSender;

   try
   {
      // Open up the connection
      azureIoTHubClient = DeviceClient.CreateFromConnectionString(options.AzureIoTHubconnectionString, TransportType.Amqp_Tcp_Only);

      await azureIoTHubClient.OpenAsync();
      await azureIoTHubClient.SetReceiveMessageHandlerAsync(ReceiveMessageHandler, azureIoTHubClient);
      await azureIoTHubClient.SetMethodHandlerAsync("Named", MethodCallbackNamedHandler, null);
      await azureIoTHubClient.SetMethodDefaultHandlerAsync(MethodCallbackDefaultHandler, null);

      MessageSender = new Timer(TimerCallbackAsync, azureIoTHubClient, new TimeSpan(0, 0, 10), new TimeSpan(0, 2, 0));

      Console.WriteLine("Press any key to exit");
      while (!Console.KeyAvailable)
      {
         await Task.Delay(100);
      }
   }
   catch (Exception ex)
   {
      Console.WriteLine($"Main {ex.Message}");
      Console.WriteLine("Press <enter> to exit");
      Console.ReadLine();
   }
}

The method handler displays the method name and the message payload.

private static async Task<MethodResponse> MethodCallbackDefaultHandler(MethodRequest methodRequest, object userContext)
{
   Console.WriteLine($"Default handler method {methodRequest.Name} was called.");

   Console.WriteLine($"Payload:{methodRequest.DataAsJson}");
   Console.WriteLine();

   //return new MethodResponse(400);
   //return new MethodResponse(404);
   return new MethodResponse(200);
}

The message handler displays a selection the message properties, any attributes and the message payload.

 private async static Task ReceiveMessageHandler(Message message, object userContext)
{
   DeviceClient azureIoTHubClient = (DeviceClient)userContext;

   Console.WriteLine($"ReceiveMessageHandler handler method was called.");

   Console.WriteLine($" Message ID:{message.MessageId}");
   Console.WriteLine($" Message Schema:{message.MessageSchema}");
   Console.WriteLine($" Correlation ID:{message.CorrelationId}");
   Console.WriteLine($" Component name:{message.ComponentName}");
   Console.WriteLine($" To:{message.To}");
   Console.WriteLine($" Module ID:{message.ConnectionModuleId}");
   Console.WriteLine($" Device ID:{message.ConnectionDeviceId}");
   Console.WriteLine($" CreatedAt:{message.CreationTimeUtc}");
   Console.WriteLine($" EnqueuedAt:{message.EnqueuedTimeUtc}");
   Console.WriteLine($" ExpiresAt:{message.ExpiryTimeUtc}");
   Console.WriteLine($" Delivery count:{message.DeliveryCount}");
   Console.WriteLine($" InputName:{message.InputName}");
   Console.WriteLine($" SequenceNumber:{message.SequenceNumber}");

   foreach (var property in message.Properties)
   {
     Console.WriteLine($"   Key:{property.Key} Value:{property.Value}");
   }

   Console.WriteLine($" Content encoding:{message.ContentEncoding}");
   Console.WriteLine($" Content type:{message.ContentType}");
   Console.WriteLine($" Content:{Encoding.UTF8.GetString(message.GetBytes())}");
   Console.WriteLine();

   //await azureIoTHubClient.AbandonAsync(message); // message retries
   await azureIoTHubClient.CompleteAsync(message);
   //await azureIoTHubClient.RejectAsync(message); // message gone no retry
}

From the Device Commands tab I can could non queued and a queued commands

Device Two Commands tab

When I sent a non-queued command the default method handler was invoked with the name of the command capability (Digital_Output_0) as the method name and an empty payload. In the Azure IoT Central interface I couldn’t see any difference for successful (HTTP 200 OK) or failure (HTTP 400 Bad Request or HTTP 404 Not Found) responses. If the application was not running the command failed immediately.

Console application displaying non-queued call

With Azure IoT Explorer failure responses were visible.

Azure IoT Explorer show message with 404 response

When I sent a queued command the message handler was invoked with the name of the command capability(Digital_Output_1) in a message property called “method-name” and the payload contained only an “@” character.

Console application displaying queued call

If the application was not running the command was queued until the Console application was started. When the console application was running and AbandonAsync was called rather than CompleteAsync the message was retried 10 times. If RejectAsync was called rather than CompleteAsync the message was deleted from the queue and not retried. There didn’t appear to be any difference for the displayed Azure IoT Central or Azure IoT Hub explorer results when AbandonAsync or RejectAsync were called.

I also created a personal dashboard to visualise the telemetry data and initiate commands. The way the two commands were presented on the dashboard was quite limited so I will go back to the documentation and see what I missed

Azure IoT Hub MQTT/AMQP oddness

This is a long post which covers some oddness I noticed when changing the protocol used by an Azure IoT Hub client from Message Queuing Telemetry Transport(MQTT) to Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP). I want to build a console application to test the pooling of AMQP connections so I started with an MQTT client written for another post.

class Program
{
   private static string payload;

   static async Task Main(string[] args)
   {
      string filename;
      string azureIoTHubconnectionString;
      DeviceClient azureIoTHubClient;

      if (args.Length != 2)
      {
         Console.WriteLine("[JOSN file] [AzureIoTHubConnectionString]");
         Console.WriteLine("Press <enter> to exit");
         Console.ReadLine();
         return;
      }

      filename = args[0];
      azureIoTHubconnectionString = args[1];

      try
      {
         payload = File.ReadAllText(filename);

         // Open up the connection
         azureIoTHubClient = DeviceClient.CreateFromConnectionString(azureIoTHubconnectionString, TransportType.Mqtt);
         //azureIoTHubClient = DeviceClient.CreateFromConnectionString(azureIoTHubconnectionString, TransportType.Mqtt_Tcp_Only);
         //azureIoTHubClient = DeviceClient.CreateFromConnectionString(azureIoTHubconnectionString, TransportType.Mqtt_WebSocket_Only);

         await azureIoTHubClient.OpenAsync();

         await azureIoTHubClient.SetMethodDefaultHandlerAsync(MethodCallbackDefault, null);

         Timer MessageSender = new Timer(TimerCallback, azureIoTHubClient, new TimeSpan(0, 0, 10), new TimeSpan(0, 0, 10));


         Console.WriteLine("Press <enter> to exit");
         Console.ReadLine();
      }
      catch (Exception ex)
      {
         Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
         Console.WriteLine("Press <enter> to exit");
         Console.ReadLine();
      }
   }

   public static async void TimerCallback(object state)
   {
      DeviceClient azureIoTHubClient = (DeviceClient)state;

      try
      {
         // I know having the payload as a global is a bit nasty but this is a demo..
         using (Message message = new Message(Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes(JsonConvert.SerializeObject(payload))))
         {
            Console.WriteLine(" {0:HH:mm:ss} AzureIoTHubDeviceClient SendEventAsync start", DateTime.UtcNow);
            await azureIoTHubClient.SendEventAsync(message);
            Console.WriteLine(" {0:HH:mm:ss} AzureIoTHubDeviceClient SendEventAsync finish", DateTime.UtcNow);
         }
      }
      catch (Exception ex)
      {
         Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
      }
   }

   private static async Task<MethodResponse> MethodCallbackDefault(MethodRequest methodRequest, object userContext)
   {
      Console.WriteLine($"Default handler method {methodRequest.Name} was called.");

      return new MethodResponse(200);
   }
}

I configured an Azure IoT hub then used Azure IoT explorer to create a device and get the connections string for my application. After fixing up the application’s command line parameters I could see the timer code was successfully sending telemetry messages to my Azure IoT Hub. I also explored the different MQTT connections options TransportType.Mqtt, TransportType.Mqtt_Tcp_Only, and TransportType.Mqtt_WebSocket_Only which worked as expected.

MQTT Console application displaying sent telemetry
Azure IoT Hub displaying received telemetry

I could also initiate Direct Method calls to my console application from Azure IoT explorer.

Azure IoT Explorer initiating a Direct Method
MQTT console application displaying direct method call.

I then changed the protocol to AMQP

class Program
{
   private static string payload;

   static async Task Main(string[] args)
   {
      string filename;
      string azureIoTHubconnectionString;
      DeviceClient azureIoTHubClient;
      Timer MessageSender;

      if (args.Length != 2)
      {
         Console.WriteLine("[JOSN file] [AzureIoTHubConnectionString]");
         Console.WriteLine("Press <enter> to exit");
         Console.ReadLine();
         return;
      }

      filename = args[0];
      azureIoTHubconnectionString = args[1];

      try
      {
         payload = File.ReadAllText(filename);

         // Open up the connection
         azureIoTHubClient = DeviceClient.CreateFromConnectionString(azureIoTHubconnectionString, TransportType.Amqp);
         //azureIoTHubClient = DeviceClient.CreateFromConnectionString(azureIoTHubconnectionString, TransportType.Amqp_Tcp_Only);
         //azureIoTHubClient = DeviceClient.CreateFromConnectionString(azureIoTHubconnectionString, TransportType.Amqp_WebSocket_Only);

         await azureIoTHubClient.OpenAsync();

         await azureIoTHubClient.SetMethodDefaultHandlerAsync(MethodCallbackDefault, null);

         //MessageSender = new Timer(TimerCallbackAsync, azureIoTHubClient, new TimeSpan(0, 0, 10), new TimeSpan(0, 0, 10));
         MessageSender = new Timer(TimerCallbackSync, azureIoTHubClient, new TimeSpan(0, 0, 10), new TimeSpan(0, 0, 10));

#if MESSAGE_PUMP
         Console.WriteLine("Press any key to exit");
         while (!Console.KeyAvailable)
         {
            await Task.Delay(100);
         }
#else
         Console.WriteLine("Press <enter> to exit");
         Console.ReadLine();
#endif
      }
      catch (Exception ex)
      {
         Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
         Console.WriteLine("Press <enter> to exit");
         Console.ReadLine();
      }
   }

   public static async void TimerCallbackAsync(object state)
   {
      DeviceClient azureIoTHubClient = (DeviceClient)state;

      try
      {
         // I know having the payload as a global is a bit nasty but this is a demo..
         using (Message message = new Message(Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes(JsonConvert.SerializeObject(payload))))
         {
            Console.WriteLine(" {0:HH:mm:ss} AzureIoTHubDeviceClient SendEventAsync start", DateTime.UtcNow);
            await azureIoTHubClient.SendEventAsync(message);
            Console.WriteLine(" {0:HH:mm:ss} AzureIoTHubDeviceClient SendEventAsync finish", DateTime.UtcNow);
         }
      }
      catch (Exception ex)
      {
         Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
      }
   }

   public static void TimerCallbackSync(object state)
   {
      DeviceClient azureIoTHubClient = (DeviceClient)state;

      try
      {
         // I know having the payload as a global is a bit nasty but this is a demo..
         using (Message message = new Message(Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes(JsonConvert.SerializeObject(payload))))
         {
            Console.WriteLine(" {0:HH:mm:ss} AzureIoTHubDeviceClient SendEventAsync start", DateTime.UtcNow);
            azureIoTHubClient.SendEventAsync(message).GetAwaiter();
            Console.WriteLine(" {0:HH:mm:ss} AzureIoTHubDeviceClient SendEventAsync finish", DateTime.UtcNow);
         }
      }
      catch (Exception ex)
      {
         Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
      }
   }


   private static async Task<MethodResponse> MethodCallbackDefault(MethodRequest methodRequest, object userContext)
   {
      Console.WriteLine($"Default handler method {methodRequest.Name} was called.");

      return new MethodResponse(200);
   }
}

In the first version of my console application I could see the SendEventAsync method was getting called but was not returning

AMQP Console application displaying sent telemetry failure

Even though the SendEventAsync call was not returning the telemetry messages were making it to my Azure IoT Hub.

Azure IoT Hub displaying AMQP telemetry

When I tried to initiate a Direct Method call from Azure IoT Explorer it failed after a while with a timeout.

Azure IoT Explorer initiating a Direct Method

The first successful approach I tried was to change the Console.Readline to a “message pump” (flashbacks to Win32 API programming).

Console.WriteLine("Press any key to exit");
while (!Console.KeyAvailable)
{
   await Task.Delay(100);
}

After some more experimentation I found that changing the timer method from asynchronous to synchronous also worked.

public static void TimerCallbackSync(object state)
{
   DeviceClient azureIoTHubClient = (DeviceClient)state;

   try
   {
      // I know having the payload as a global is a bit nasty but this is a demo..
      using (Message message = new Message(Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes(JsonConvert.SerializeObject(payload))))
      {
         Console.WriteLine(" {0:HH:mm:ss} AzureIoTHubDeviceClient SendEventAsync start", DateTime.UtcNow);
         azureIoTHubClient.SendEventAsync(message).GetAwaiter();
         Console.WriteLine(" {0:HH:mm:ss} AzureIoTHubDeviceClient SendEventAsync finish", DateTime.UtcNow);
      }
   }
   catch (Exception ex)
   {
      Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
   }
}

I also had to change the method declaration and modify the SendEventAsync call to use a GetAwaiter.

AMQP Console application displaying sent telemetry
Azure IoT Hub displaying received telemetry
Azure IoT Explorer initiating a Direct Method
MQTT console application displaying direct method call.

It took a while to figure out enough about what was going on so I could do a search with the right keywords (DeviceClient AMQP async await SendEventAsync) to confirm my suspicion that MQTT and AMQP clients did behave differently.

For anyone who reads this post, I think this Github issue about task handling and blocking calls is most probably the answer (October 2020).