RFM9X.TinyCLR on Github

The source code of V1.0 of my GHI Electronics TinyCLR-OS RFM9X/SX127X library is on GitHub.

I initially started with a Dragino LoRa Shield for Arduino but have tested with an Elecrow RFM95 shield as well.

Dragino LoRa Shield for Arduino based test harness

A sample application which shows how to send/receive address/un-addresses payloads

//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Copyright (c) March 2020, devMobile Software
//
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
//
//     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.
//
//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
namespace devMobile.IoT.Rfm9x.LoRaDeviceClient
{
   using System;
   using System.Diagnostics;
   using System.Text;
   using System.Threading;

   using GHIElectronics.TinyCLR.Pins;

   using devMobile.IoT.Rfm9x;

   class Program
   {
      static void Main()
      {
			const string DeviceName = "FEZLoRa";
#if ADDRESSED_MESSAGES_PAYLOAD
			const string HostName = "LoRaIoT1";
#endif
			const double Frequency = 915000000.0;
			byte MessageCount = System.Byte.MaxValue;
			Rfm9XDevice rfm9XDevice = new Rfm9XDevice(FEZ.GpioPin.D10, FEZ.GpioPin.D9, FEZ.GpioPin.D2);

			rfm9XDevice.Initialise(Frequency, paBoost: true, rxPayloadCrcOn: true);
#if DEBUG
			rfm9XDevice.RegisterDump();
#endif

			rfm9XDevice.OnReceive += Rfm9XDevice_OnReceive;
#if ADDRESSED_MESSAGES_PAYLOAD
			rfm9XDevice.Receive(UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(DeviceName));
#else
			rfm9XDevice.Receive();
#endif
			rfm9XDevice.OnTransmit += Rfm9XDevice_OnTransmit;

			Thread.Sleep(10000);

			while (true)
			{
				string messageText = string.Format("Hello from {0} ! {1}", DeviceName, MessageCount);
				MessageCount -= 1;

				byte[] messageBytes = UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(messageText);
				Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.Now:HH:mm:ss}-TX {messageBytes.Length} byte message {messageText}");
#if ADDRESSED_MESSAGES_PAYLOAD
				rfm9XDevice.Send(UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(HostName), messageBytes);
#else
				rfm9XDevice.Send(messageBytes);
#endif
				Thread.Sleep(10000);
			}
		}

		private static void Rfm9XDevice_OnReceive(object sender, Rfm9XDevice.OnDataReceivedEventArgs e)
		{
			try
			{
				string messageText = UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetString(e.Data);

#if ADDRESSED_MESSAGES_PAYLOAD
				string addressText = UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetString(e.Address);

				Debug.WriteLine($@"{DateTime.Now:HH:mm:ss}-RX From {addressText} PacketSnr {e.PacketSnr} Packet RSSI {e.PacketRssi}dBm RSSI {e.Rssi}dBm = {e.Data.Length} byte message ""{messageText}""");
#else
				Debug.WriteLine($@"{DateTime.Now:HH:mm:ss}-RX PacketSnr {e.PacketSnr} Packet RSSI {e.PacketRssi}dBm RSSI {e.Rssi}dBm = {e.Data.Length} byte message ""{messageText}""");
#endif
			}
			catch (Exception ex)
			{
				Debug.WriteLine(ex.Message);
			}
		}

		private static void Rfm9XDevice_OnTransmit(object sender, Rfm9XDevice.OnDataTransmitedEventArgs e)
		{
			Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.Now:HH:mm:ss}-TX Done");
		}
	}
}


The addressing support is pretty basic as my goal was a library that I could extend with optional functionality like tamper detection via signing and privacy via payload encryption, mesh network support etc.

The library works but should be treated as late beta.

TinyCLR OS LoRa library Part4

Transmit Basic

I had a couple of Armtronix IA005 SX1276 loRa nodes sitting on my desk from a recent post so I used one of them running a modified version of the Arduino LoRa library LoRaSetSyncWord example to receive messages from my device.

Armtronix and FEZT18-N TinyCLR testrig
/*
  LoRa Duplex communication with Sync Word
 
  Sends a message every half second, and polls continually
  for new incoming messages. Sets the LoRa radio's Sync Word.
 
  Spreading factor is basically the radio's network ID. Radios with different
  Sync Words will not receive each other's transmissions. This is one way you
  can filter out radios you want to ignore, without making an addressing scheme.
 
  See the Semtech datasheet, http://www.semtech.com/images/datasheet/sx1276.pdf
  for more on Sync Word.
 
  created 28 April 2017
  by Tom Igoe
*/
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <LoRa.h>
const int csPin = PA4;          // LoRa radio chip select
const int resetPin = PC13;       // LoRa radio reset
const int irqPin = PA11;         // change for your board; must be a hardware interrupt pin
 
byte msgCount = 0;            // count of outgoing messages
int interval = 2000;          // interval between sends
long lastSendTime = 0;        // time of last packet send
 
void setup() {
  Serial.begin(9600);                   // initialize serial
  while (!Serial);
 
  Serial.println("LoRa Duplex - Set sync word");
 
  // override the default CS, reset, and IRQ pins (optional)
  LoRa.setPins(csPin, resetPin, irqPin);// set CS, reset, IRQ pin
 
  if (!LoRa.begin(915E6)) {             // initialize ratio at 915 MHz
    Serial.println("LoRa init failed. Check your connections.");
    while (true);                       // if failed, do nothing
  }
 
  LoRa.setSyncWord(0x12);           // ranges from 0-0xFF, default 0x34, see API docs
 
  LoRa.dumpRegisters(Serial);
  Serial.println("LoRa init succeeded.");
}
 
void loop() {
  if (millis() - lastSendTime > interval) {
    String message = "HeLoRa World! ";   // send a message
    message += msgCount;
    sendMessage(message);
    Serial.println("Sending " + message);
    lastSendTime = millis();            // timestamp the message
    interval = random(1000) + 10000;    // 10-11 seconds
    msgCount++;
  }
 
  // parse for a packet, and call onReceive with the result:
  onReceive(LoRa.parsePacket());
}
 
void sendMessage(String outgoing) {
  LoRa.beginPacket();                   // start packet
  LoRa.print(outgoing);                 // add payload
  LoRa.endPacket();                     // finish packet and send it
  msgCount++;                           // increment message ID
}
 
void onReceive(int packetSize) {
  if (packetSize == 0) return;          // if there's no packet, return
 
  // read packet header bytes:
  String incoming = "";
 
  while (LoRa.available()) {
    incoming += (char)LoRa.read();
  }
 
  Serial.println("Message: " + incoming);
  Serial.println("RSSI: " + String(LoRa.packetRssi()));
  Serial.println("Snr: " + String(LoRa.packetSnr()));
  Serial.println();
}

The FEZT-18N application

   class Program
   {
      static void Main()
      {
         Rfm9XDevice rfm9XDevice = new Rfm9XDevice(FEZ.GpioPin.D10, FEZ.GpioPin.D9);
         int SendCount = 0;

         // Put device into LoRa + Sleep mode
         rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x01, 0b10000000); // RegOpMode 

         // Set the frequency to 915MHz
         byte[] frequencyWriteBytes = { 0xE4, 0xC0, 0x00 }; // RegFrMsb, RegFrMid, RegFrLsb
         rfm9XDevice.RegisterWrite(0x06, frequencyWriteBytes);

         // More power PA Boost
         rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x09, 0b10000000); // RegPaConfig

         while (true)
         {
            rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x0E, 0x0); // RegFifoTxBaseAddress 

            // Set the Register Fifo address pointer
            rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x0D, 0x0); // RegFifoAddrPtr 

            string messageText = $"Hello LoRa {SendCount += 1}!";
               
            // load the message into the fifo
            byte[] messageBytes = UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(messageText);
            rfm9XDevice.RegisterWrite(0x0, messageBytes); // RegFifo

            // Set the length of the message in the fifo
            rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x22, (byte)messageBytes.Length); // RegPayloadLength

            Debug.WriteLine($"Sending {messageBytes.Length} bytes message {messageText}");
            /// Set the mode to LoRa + Transmit
            rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x01, 0b10000011); // RegOpMode 

            // Wait until send done, no timeouts in PoC
            Debug.WriteLine("Send-wait");
            byte IrqFlags = rfm9XDevice.RegisterReadByte(0x12); // RegIrqFlags
            while ((IrqFlags & 0b00001000) == 0)  // wait until TxDone cleared
            {
               Thread.Sleep(10);
               IrqFlags = rfm9XDevice.RegisterReadByte(0x12); // RegIrqFlags
               Debug.WriteLine(".");
            }
            rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x12, 0b00001000); // clear TxDone bit
            Debug.WriteLine("Send-Done");

            Thread.Sleep(30000);
         }
      }

When I ran the FEZ application in Visual Studio

'GHIElectronics.TinyCLR.VisualStudio.ProjectSystem.dll' (Managed): Loaded 'C:\Users\BrynLewis\source\repos\RFM9X.TinyCLR\TransmitBasic\bin\Debug\pe\..\GHIElectronics.TinyCLR.Native.dll'
'GHIElectronics.TinyCLR.VisualStudio.ProjectSystem.dll' (Managed): Loaded 'C:\Users\BrynLewis\source\repos\RFM9X.TinyCLR\TransmitBasic\bin\Debug\pe\..\GHIElectronics.TinyCLR.Devices.Gpio.dll'
'GHIElectronics.TinyCLR.VisualStudio.ProjectSystem.dll' (Managed): Loaded 'C:\Users\BrynLewis\source\repos\RFM9X.TinyCLR\TransmitBasic\bin\Debug\pe\..\GHIElectronics.TinyCLR.Devices.Spi.dll'
'GHIElectronics.TinyCLR.VisualStudio.ProjectSystem.dll' (Managed): Loaded 'C:\Users\BrynLewis\source\repos\RFM9X.TinyCLR\TransmitBasic\bin\Debug\pe\..\TransmitBasic.exe', Symbols loaded.
The thread '<No Name>' (0x2) has exited with code 0 (0x0).
Sending 13 bytes message Hello LoRa 1!
Send-wait
.
.
.
.
Send-Done
Sending 13 bytes message Hello LoRa 2!
Send-wait
.
.
.
.
Send-Done
Sending 13 bytes message Hello LoRa 3!
Send-wait
.
.
.
.
Send-Done
Sending 13 bytes message Hello LoRa 4!
Send-wait
.
.
.
.
Send-Done
Sending 13 bytes message Hello LoRa 5!
Send-wait
.
.
.
.
Send-Done

I could the see the messages arriving at the Armtronix device in the Arduino monitor.

19:22:28.445 -> Message: Hello LoRa 1!
19:22:28.445 -> RSSI: -36
19:22:28.479 -> Snr: 9.50
19:22:28.479 ->
19:22:29.362 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 48
19:22:40.390 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 50
19:22:50.654 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 52
19:22:58.484 -> Message: Hello LoRa 2!
19:22:58.484 -> RSSI: -36
19:22:58.553 -> Snr: 9.25
19:22:58.553 ->
19:23:01.254 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 54
19:23:11.873 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 56
19:23:22.103 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 58
19:23:28.558 -> Message: Hello LoRa 3!
19:23:28.558 -> RSSI: -31
19:23:28.592 -> Snr: 9.75
19:23:28.592 ->
19:23:32.307 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 60
19:23:42.929 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 62
19:23:53.392 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 64
19:23:58.622 -> Message: Hello LoRa 4!
19:23:58.622 -> RSSI: -36
19:23:58.655 -> Snr: 9.75
19:23:58.655 ->
19:24:03.629 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 66
19:24:14.299 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 68
19:24:24.989 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 70

This PoC code is getting a bit nasty with magic numbers and no error checking. The next step is getting a basic packet receive working…

Meadow LoRa Radio 915 MHz Payload Addressing client

This is a demo Wilderness Labs Meadow client that uploads temperature and humidity data to my Azure IoT Hubs/Central, AdaFruit.IO or MQTT on Raspberry PI field gateways.

Bill of materials (Prices Jan 2020).

//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Copyright (c) January 2020, devMobile Software
//
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
//
//     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.
//
//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
namespace devMobile.IoT.FieldGateway.Client
{
   using System;
   using System.Text;
   using System.Threading;

   using devMobile.IoT.Rfm9x;

   using Meadow;
   using Meadow.Devices;
   using Meadow.Foundation.Leds;
   using Meadow.Foundation.Sensors.Atmospheric;
   using Meadow.Hardware;
   using Meadow.Peripherals.Leds;

   public class MeadowClient : App<F7Micro, MeadowClient>
   {
      private const double Frequency = 915000000.0;
      private readonly byte[] fieldGatewayAddress = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes("LoRaIoT1");
      private readonly byte[] deviceAddress = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes("Meadow");
      private readonly Rfm9XDevice rfm9XDevice;
      private readonly TimeSpan periodTime = new TimeSpan(0, 0, 60);
      private readonly Sht31D sensor;
      private readonly ILed Led;

      public MeadowClient()
      {
         Led = new Led(Device, Device.Pins.OnboardLedGreen);

         try
         {
            sensor = new Sht31D(Device.CreateI2cBus());

            ISpiBus spiBus = Device.CreateSpiBus(500);

            rfm9XDevice = new Rfm9XDevice(Device, spiBus, Device.Pins.D09, Device.Pins.D10, Device.Pins.D12);

            rfm9XDevice.Initialise(Frequency, paBoost: true, rxPayloadCrcOn: true);
#if DEBUG
            rfm9XDevice.RegisterDump();
#endif
            rfm9XDevice.OnReceive += Rfm9XDevice_OnReceive;
            rfm9XDevice.Receive(deviceAddress);
            rfm9XDevice.OnTransmit += Rfm9XDevice_OnTransmit;
         }
         catch (Exception ex)
         {
            Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
         }

         while (true)
         {
            sensor.Update();

            Console.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:HH:mm:ss}-TX T:{sensor.Temperature:0.0}C H:{sensor.Humidity:0}%");

            string payload = $"t {sensor.Temperature:0.0},h {sensor.Humidity:0}";

            Led.IsOn = true;

            rfm9XDevice.Send(fieldGatewayAddress, Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(payload));

            Thread.Sleep(periodTime);
         }
      }

      private void Rfm9XDevice_OnReceive(object sender, Rfm9XDevice.OnDataReceivedEventArgs e)
      {
         try
         {
            string addressText = UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetString(e.Address);
            string addressHex = BitConverter.ToString(e.Address);
            string messageText = UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetString(e.Data);

            Console.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:HH:mm:ss}-RX PacketSnr {e.PacketSnr:0.0} Packet RSSI {e.PacketRssi}dBm RSSI {e.Rssi}dBm = {e.Data.Length} byte message {messageText}");
         }
         catch (Exception ex)
         {
            Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
         }
      }

      private void Rfm9XDevice_OnTransmit(object sender, Rfm9XDevice.OnDataTransmitedEventArgs e)
      {
         Led.IsOn = false;

         Console.WriteLine("{0:HH:mm:ss}-TX Done", DateTime.Now);
      }
   }
}

The Meadow platform is a work in progress (Jan 2020) so I haven’t put any effort into minimising power consumption but will revisit this in a future post.

Meadow device with Seeedstudio SHT31 temperature & humidity sensor
Meadow sensor data in Field Gateway ETW logging
Meadow Sensor data in Azure IoT Central

RFM9X.Meadow on Github

After a month or so of posts the source code of V1.0 of my Wilderness Labs Meadow RFM9X/SX127X library is on GitHub. I included all of the source for my test harness and proof of concept(PoC) application so other people can follow along with “my meadow learning experience”.

I initially started with a Dragino LoRa Shield for Arduino and jumper cables. I did this so only the pins I was using on the shield were connected to the Meadow.

Dragino LoRa Shield for Arduino based test harness

I then moved to an Adafruit LoRa Radio FeatherWing RFM95W 900MHz RadioFruit and Adafruit LoRa Radio FeatherWing – RFM95W 433 MHz – RadioFruit.

Adafruit FeatherWing based test harness

Using the jumper configuration above, the RFM9X constructor parameters are

  • Chip Select D9 (yellow wire)
  • Reset Pin D10 (grey wire)
  • Interrupt pin D12 (brown wire)
//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Copyright (c) January 2020, devMobile Software
//
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
//
//     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.
//
//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
namespace devMobile.IoT.Rfm9x.LoRaDeviceClient
{
   using System;
   using System.Diagnostics;
   using System.Text;
   using System.Threading.Tasks;

   using Meadow;
   using Meadow.Devices;
   using Meadow.Hardware;

   public class MeadowApp : App<F7Micro, MeadowApp>
   {
      private const double Frequency = 915000000.0;
      private byte MessageCount = Byte.MaxValue;
      private Rfm9XDevice rfm9XDevice;

      public MeadowApp()
      {
         try
         {
            ISpiBus spiBus = Device.CreateSpiBus(500);
            if (spiBus == null)
            {
               Console.WriteLine("spiBus == null");
            }
            rfm9XDevice = new Rfm9XDevice(Device, spiBus, Device.Pins.D09, Device.Pins.D10, Device.Pins.D12);

            rfm9XDevice.Initialise(Frequency, paBoost: true, rxPayloadCrcOn: true);
#if DEBUG
            rfm9XDevice.RegisterDump();
#endif

            rfm9XDevice.OnReceive += Rfm9XDevice_OnReceive;
#if ADDRESSED_MESSAGES_PAYLOAD
            rfm9XDevice.Receive(UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes("AddressHere"));
#else
            rfm9XDevice.Receive();
#endif
            rfm9XDevice.OnTransmit += Rfm9XDevice_OnTransmit;
         }
         catch (Exception ex)
         {
            Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
         }

         Task.Delay(10000).Wait();

         while (true)
         {
            string messageText = string.Format("Hello from {0} ! {1}", Environment.MachineName, MessageCount);
            MessageCount -= 2;

            byte[] messageBytes = UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(messageText);
            Console.WriteLine("{0:HH:mm:ss}-TX {1} byte message {2}", DateTime.Now, messageBytes.Length, messageText);
#if ADDRESSED_MESSAGES_PAYLOAD
            this.rfm9XDevice.Send(UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes("AddressHere"), messageBytes);
#else
            this.rfm9XDevice.Send(messageBytes);
#endif
            Task.Delay(10000).Wait();
         }
      }

      private void Rfm9XDevice_OnReceive(object sender, Rfm9XDevice.OnDataReceivedEventArgs e)
      {
         try
         {
            string messageText = UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetString(e.Data);

#if ADDRESSED_MESSAGES_PAYLOAD
            string addressText = UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetString(e.Address);

            Console.WriteLine(@"{0:HH:mm:ss}-RX From {1} PacketSnr {2:0.0} Packet RSSI {3}dBm RSSI {4}dBm = {5} byte message ""{6}""", DateTime.Now, addressText, e.PacketSnr, e.PacketRssi, e.Rssi, e.Data.Length, messageText);
#else
            Console.WriteLine(@"{0:HH:mm:ss}-RX PacketSnr {1:0.0} Packet RSSI {2}dBm RSSI {3}dBm = {4} byte message ""{5}""", DateTime.Now, e.PacketSnr, e.PacketRssi, e.Rssi, e.Data.Length, messageText);
#endif
         }
         catch (Exception ex)
         {
            Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
         }
      }

      private void Rfm9XDevice_OnTransmit(object sender, Rfm9XDevice.OnDataTransmitedEventArgs e)
      {
         Console.WriteLine("{0:HH:mm:ss}-TX Done", DateTime.Now);
      }
   }
}

My library works but some issues (Dec 2019) with the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) ReadRegister method, Debug.WriteLine and Console.WriteLine mean it should be treated as late beta.

The wilderness labs developers are regularly releasing updates which I will test with as soon as they are available.

.Net Meadow RFM95/96/97/98 LoRa library Part4

Transmit Basic

I had a couple of Armtronix IA005 SX1276 loRa nodes sitting on my desk from a recent post so I used one of them running a modified version of the Arduino LoRa library LoRaSetSyncWord example to receive messages from my Meadow device.

/*
  LoRa Duplex communication with Sync Word
 
  Sends a message every half second, and polls continually
  for new incoming messages. Sets the LoRa radio's Sync Word.
 
  Spreading factor is basically the radio's network ID. Radios with different
  Sync Words will not receive each other's transmissions. This is one way you
  can filter out radios you want to ignore, without making an addressing scheme.
 
  See the Semtech datasheet, http://www.semtech.com/images/datasheet/sx1276.pdf
  for more on Sync Word.
 
  created 28 April 2017
  by Tom Igoe
*/
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <LoRa.h>
const int csPin = PA4;          // LoRa radio chip select
const int resetPin = PC13;       // LoRa radio reset
const int irqPin = PA11;         // change for your board; must be a hardware interrupt pin
 
byte msgCount = 0;            // count of outgoing messages
int interval = 2000;          // interval between sends
long lastSendTime = 0;        // time of last packet send
 
void setup() {
  Serial.begin(9600);                   // initialize serial
  while (!Serial);
 
  Serial.println("LoRa Duplex - Set sync word");
 
  // override the default CS, reset, and IRQ pins (optional)
  LoRa.setPins(csPin, resetPin, irqPin);// set CS, reset, IRQ pin
 
  if (!LoRa.begin(915E6)) {             // initialize ratio at 915 MHz
    Serial.println("LoRa init failed. Check your connections.");
    while (true);                       // if failed, do nothing
  }
 
  LoRa.setSyncWord(0x12);           // ranges from 0-0xFF, default 0x34, see API docs
 
  LoRa.dumpRegisters(Serial);
  Serial.println("LoRa init succeeded.");
}
 
void loop() {
  if (millis() - lastSendTime > interval) {
    String message = "HeLoRa World! ";   // send a message
    message += msgCount;
    sendMessage(message);
    Serial.println("Sending " + message);
    lastSendTime = millis();            // timestamp the message
    interval = random(1000) + 10000;    // 10-11 seconds
    msgCount++;
  }
 
  // parse for a packet, and call onReceive with the result:
  onReceive(LoRa.parsePacket());
}
 
void sendMessage(String outgoing) {
  LoRa.beginPacket();                   // start packet
  LoRa.print(outgoing);                 // add payload
  LoRa.endPacket();                     // finish packet and send it
  msgCount++;                           // increment message ID
}
 
void onReceive(int packetSize) {
  if (packetSize == 0) return;          // if there's no packet, return
 
  // read packet header bytes:
  String incoming = "";
 
  while (LoRa.available()) {
    incoming += (char)LoRa.read();
  }
 
  Serial.println("Message: " + incoming);
  Serial.println("RSSI: " + String(LoRa.packetRssi()));
  Serial.println("Snr: " + String(LoRa.packetSnr()));
  Serial.println();
}

The Meadow application

	public class MeadowApp : App<F7Micro, MeadowApp>
	{
		private Rfm9XDevice rfm9XDevice;

		public MeadowApp()
		{
			ISpiBus spiBus = Device.CreateSpiBus(500);
			if (spiBus == null)
			{
				Console.WriteLine("spiBus == null");
			}

			rfm9XDevice = new Rfm9XDevice(Device, spiBus, Device.Pins.D09, Device.Pins.D11);

			// Put device into LoRa + Sleep mode
			rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x01, 0b10000000); // RegOpMode 

			// Set the frequency to 915MHz
			byte[] frequencyWriteBytes = { 0xE4, 0xC0, 0x00 }; // RegFrMsb, RegFrMid, RegFrLsb
			rfm9XDevice.RegisterWrite(0x06, frequencyWriteBytes);

			// More power PA Boost
			rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x09, 0b10000000); // RegPaConfig

			while (true)
			{
				rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x0E, 0x0); // RegFifoTxBaseAddress 

				// Set the Register Fifo address pointer
				rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x0D, 0x0); // RegFifoAddrPtr 

				string messageText = "Hello LoRa!";

				// load the message into the fifo
				byte[] messageBytes = UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(messageText);
				foreach (byte b in messageBytes)
				{
					rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x0, b); // RegFifo
				}

				// Set the length of the message in the fifo
				rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x22, (byte)messageBytes.Length); // RegPayloadLength

				Console.WriteLine("Sending {0} bytes message {1}", messageBytes.Length, messageText);
				/// Set the mode to LoRa + Transmit
				rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x01, 0b10000011); // RegOpMode 

				// Wait until send done, no timeouts in PoC
				Console.WriteLine("Send-wait");
				byte IrqFlags = rfm9XDevice.RegisterReadByte(0x12); // RegIrqFlags
				while ((IrqFlags & 0b00001000) == 0)  // wait until TxDone cleared
				{
					Task.Delay(10).Wait();
					IrqFlags = rfm9XDevice.RegisterReadByte(0x12); // RegIrqFlags
					Console.Write(".");
				}
				Console.WriteLine("");
				rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x12, 0b00001000); // clear TxDone bit
				Console.WriteLine("Send-Done");

				Task.Delay(30000).Wait();
			}
		}

When I ran the meadow application after some messing around with the jumper wires.

'App.exe' (CLR v4.0.30319: DefaultDomain): Loaded 'C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.Net\assembly\GAC_64\mscorlib\v4.0_4.0.0.0__b77a5c561934e089\mscorlib.dll'. 
'App.exe' (CLR v4.0.30319: DefaultDomain): Loaded 'C:\Users\BrynLewis\source\repos\RFM9X.Meadow\TransmitBasic\bin\Debug\net472\App.exe'. Symbols loaded.
'App.exe' (CLR v4.0.30319: App.exe): Loaded 'C:\Users\BrynLewis\source\repos\RFM9X.Meadow\TransmitBasic\bin\Debug\net472\Meadow.dll'. 
The program '[37572] App.exe: Program Trace' has exited with code 0 (0x0).
The program '[37572] App.exe' has exited with code 0 (0x0).
.
.
DirectRegisterAccess = True
.
.
Sending 11 bytes message Hello LoRa!
Send-wait
Send-Done
Sending 11 bytes message Hello LoRa!
Send-wait
.
Send-Done

I could the see the messages arriving at the Armtronix device in the Arduino monitor (the other messages in the monitor are my solar powered weather station and soil moisture monitoring node).

12:47:55.198 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 10
12:48:05.745 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 12
12:48:06.663 -> Message: ⸮LoRaIoT1Maduino2at 85.8,ah 19,wsa 5,wsg 8,wd 123.38,r 0.00,
12:48:06.730 -> RSSI: -71
12:48:06.730 -> Snr: 10.00
12:48:06.730 ->
12:48:08.770 -> Message: Hello LoRa!
12:48:08.770 -> RSSI: -47
12:48:08.804 -> Snr: 9.00
12:48:08.804 ->
12:48:16.555 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 14
12:48:26.847 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 16
12:48:37.154 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 18
12:48:39.469 -> Message: Hello LoRa!
12:48:39.469 -> RSSI: -46
12:48:39.536 -> Snr: 9.00
12:48:39.536 ->
12:48:47.311 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 20
12:48:58.094 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 22
12:49:07.748 -> Message: ⸮LoRaIoT1Maduino2at 86.0,ah 19,wsa 5,wsg 15,wd 155.63,r 0.00,
12:49:07.817 -> RSSI: -71
12:49:07.817 -> Snr: 9.50
12:49:07.817 ->
12:49:08.464 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 24
12:49:10.097 -> Message: Hello LoRa!
12:49:10.097 -> RSSI: -46
12:49:10.130 -> Snr: 9.75
12:49:10.130 ->
12:49:19.373 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 26
12:49:30.125 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 28
12:49:40.262 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 30
12:49:40.671 -> Message: Hello LoRa!
12:49:40.671 -> RSSI: -46
12:49:40.705 -> Snr: 9.25
12:49:40.705 ->
12:49:50.725 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 32
12:50:01.081 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 34
12:50:08.800 -> Message: ⸮LoRaIoT1Maduino2at 85.6,ah 19,wsa 5,wsg 11,wd 159.00,r 0.00,
12:50:08.868 -> RSSI: -72
12:50:08.868 -> Snr: 10.00
12:50:08.868 ->
12:50:11.219 -> Message: Hello LoRa!
12:50:11.219 -> RSSI: -46
12:50:11.252 -> Snr: 9.25
12:50:11.252 ->
12:50:11.526 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 36
12:50:21.731 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 38
12:50:32.696 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 40
12:50:41.741 -> Message: Hello LoRa!
12:50:41.741 -> RSSI: -46
12:50:41.775 -> Snr: 9.25
12:50:41.775 ->
12:50:43.685 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 42
12:50:54.566 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 44
12:51:05.604 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 46
12:51:09.852 -> Message: ⸮LoRaIoT1Maduino2at 85.3,ah 19,wsa 2,wsg 8,wd 150.75,r 0.00,
12:51:09.954 -> RSSI: -71
12:51:09.954 -> Snr: 9.50
12:51:09.954 ->
12:51:12.400 -> Message: Hello LoRa!
12:51:12.400 -> RSSI: -46
12:51:12.433 -> Snr: 9.00
12:51:12.433 ->
12:51:16.511 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 48
12:51:27.530 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 50
12:51:37.796 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 52
12:51:42.968 -> Message: Hello LoRa!
12:51:42.968 -> RSSI: -45
12:51:43.003 -> Snr: 9.25
12:51:43.003 ->
12:51:48.389 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 54
12:51:59.052 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 56
12:52:09.251 -> Sending HeLoRa World! 58
12:52:10.912 -> Message: ⸮LoRaIoT1Maduino2at 85.1,ah 19,wsa 2,wsg 6,wd 84.00,r 0.00,
12:52:11.013 -> RSSI: -70
12:52:11.013 -> Snr: 9.75
12:52:11.013 ->
12:52:13.546 -> Message: Hello LoRa!
12:52:13.546 -> RSSI: -46
12:52:13.581 -> Snr: 9.75
12:52:13.581 ->

This PoC code is getting a bit nasty with magic numbers and no error checking. The next step is getting a basic packet receive working…

.Net Meadow RFM95/96/97/98 LoRa library Part1

After writing Windows 10 IoT Core & .NetMF RFM9X libraries I figured a port to a Wilderness Labs Meadow device shouldn’t be “rocket science”.

To get started I used a Dragino LoRa shield for Arduino which looked compatible with my Meadow device.

Dragino shield schematic

The shield ships with the SPI lines configured for ICSP so the three jumpers diagonally across the shield from the antenna connector need to be swapped to the side closest to the edge of the shield.

Dragino Arduino shield based test harness
//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Copyright (c) Dec 2019, devMobile Software
//
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
//
//     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.
//
//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
namespace devMobile.IoT.Rfm9x
{
   using System;
   using System.Threading.Tasks;
   using Meadow;
   using Meadow.Devices;
   using Meadow.Hardware;

   public class MeadowApp : App<F7Micro, MeadowApp>
   {
      const byte RegVersion = 0x42;
      ISpiBus spiBus;
      SpiPeripheral sx127xDevice;
      IDigitalOutputPort spiPeriphChipSelect;

      public MeadowApp()
      {
         ConfigureSpiPort();
         //ReadDeviceID();
         ReadDeviceIDDiy();
      }

      public void ConfigureSpiPort()
      {
         try
         {
            spiBus = Device.CreateSpiBus(500);
            if (spiBus == null)
            {
               Console.WriteLine("spiBus == null");
            }

            Console.WriteLine("Creating SPI NSS Port...");
            spiPeriphChipSelect = Device.CreateDigitalOutputPort(Device.Pins.D09);
            if (spiPeriphChipSelect == null)
            {
               Console.WriteLine("spiPeriphChipSelect == null");
            }
   
            Console.WriteLine("sx127xDevice Device...");
            sx127xDevice = new SpiPeripheral(spiBus, spiPeriphChipSelect);
            if (sx127xDevice == null)
            {
               Console.WriteLine("sx127xDevice == null");
            }

            Console.WriteLine("ConfigureSpiPort Done...");
         }
         catch (Exception ex)
         {
            Console.WriteLine("ConfigureSpiPort " + ex.Message);
         }
      }

      
      public void ReadDeviceID()
      {
         Task.Delay(500).Wait();

         while (true)
         {
            try
            {
               Console.WriteLine("sx127xDevice.ReadRegister...1");

               byte registerValue = sx127xDevice.ReadRegister(RegVersion);

               Console.WriteLine("sx127xDevice.ReadRegister...2");

               Console.WriteLine("Register 0x{0:x2} - Value 0X{1:x2} - Bits {2}", RegVersion, registerValue, Convert.ToString(registerValue, 2).PadLeft(8, '0'));
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
               Console.WriteLine("ReadDeviceID " + ex.Message);
            }

            Task.Delay(10000).Wait();
         }
      }

      public void ReadDeviceIDDiy()
      {
         var txBuffer = new byte[2];
         var rxBuffer = new byte[2];

         Task.Delay(500).Wait();

         while (true)
         {
            try
            {
               Console.WriteLine("spiBus.ExchangeData...1");

               txBuffer[0] = RegVersion;

               spiBus.ExchangeData(spiPeriphChipSelect, ChipSelectMode.ActiveLow, txBuffer, rxBuffer, 2);

               Console.WriteLine("spiBus.ExchangeData...2");

               byte registerValue = rxBuffer[1];

               Console.WriteLine("Register 0x{0:x2} - Value 0X{1:x2} - Bits {2}", RegVersion, registerValue, Convert.ToString(registerValue, 2).PadLeft(8, '0'));
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
               Console.WriteLine("ReadDeviceIDDiy " + ex.Message);
            }

            Task.Delay(10000).Wait();
         }
      }
   }
}

After some trial and error (using beta 3.6) I found that the ReadRegister method didn’t work as expected (possibly related to this issue) and I had to manually assemble the request to read the SX127X RegVersion register.

'App.exe' (CLR v4.0.30319: DefaultDomain): Loaded 'C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.Net\assembly\GAC_64\mscorlib\v4.0_4.0.0.0__b77a5c561934e089\mscorlib.dll'. 
'App.exe' (CLR v4.0.30319: DefaultDomain): Loaded 'C:\Users\BrynLewis\source\repos\RFX9X.Meadow\FeatherWingSPI\bin\Debug\net472\App.exe'. Symbols loaded.
'App.exe' (CLR v4.0.30319: App.exe): Loaded 'C:\Users\BrynLewis\source\repos\RFX9X.Meadow\FeatherWingSPI\bin\Debug\net472\Meadow.dll'. 
The program '[22324] App.exe: Program Trace' has exited with code 0 (0x0).
The program '[22324] App.exe' has exited with code 0 (0x0).
.
.
DirectRegisterAccess = True
==========================================================
Ignore the exceptions generated by the DateTime call here.
==========================================================
.
Creating SPI NSS Port...
sx127xDevice Device...
ConfigureSpiPort Done...
spiBus.ExchangeData...1
spiBus.ExchangeData...2
Register 0x42 - Value 0X12 - Bits 00010010
spiBus.ExchangeData...1
spiBus.ExchangeData...2
Register 0x42 - Value 0X12 - Bits 00010010
spiBus.ExchangeData...1
spiBus.ExchangeData...2
Register 0x42 - Value 0X12 - Bits 00010010
spiBus.ExchangeData...1
spiBus.ExchangeData...2

Armtronix IA005 SX1276 loRa node

A month ago I ordered a pair of IA005: SX1276 Lora node STM32F103 devices from the Armtronix shop on Tindie for evaluation. At USD18 each these devices were competitively priced and I was interested in trialling another maple like device.

Bill of materials (Prices as at December 2019)

  • IA005 SX1276 loRa node USD36 (USD18 each)
  • Grove – Temperature&Humidity Sensor USD11.5
  • Grove – 4 pin Female Jumper to Grove 4 pin Conversion Cable USD3.90
Armtronix device with Seeedstudio temperature & humidity sensor

I used a modified version of my Arduino client code which worked after I got the pins sorted and the female jumper sockets in the right order.

/*
  Copyright ® 2019 December devMobile Software, All Rights Reserved

  THIS CODE AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY
  KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE
  IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
  PURPOSE.

  You can do what you want with this code, acknowledgment would be nice.

  http://www.devmobile.co.nz

*/
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <LoRa.h>
#include <TH02_dev.h>

//#define DEBUG
//#define DEBUG_TELEMETRY
//#define DEBUG_LORA

// LoRa field gateway configuration (these settings must match your field gateway)
const char FieldGatewayAddress[] = {"LoRaIoT1"};
const char DeviceAddress[] = {"ArmTronix01"};
const float FieldGatewayFrequency =  915000000.0;
const byte FieldGatewaySyncWord = 0x12 ;

// Payload configuration
const int ChipSelectPin = PA4;
const int InterruptPin = PA11;
const int ResetPin = PC13;

// LoRa radio payload configuration
const byte SensorIdValueSeperator = ' ' ;
const byte SensorReadingSeperator = ',' ;
const int LoopSleepDelaySeconds = 30 ;

const byte PayloadSizeMaximum = 64 ;
byte payload[PayloadSizeMaximum];
byte payloadLength = 0 ;


void setup()
{
  Serial.begin(9600);
#ifdef DEBUG
  while (!Serial);
#endif
  Serial.println("Setup called");

  Serial.println("LoRa setup start");
  
  // override the default chip select and reset pins
  LoRa.setPins(ChipSelectPin, ResetPin, InterruptPin); 
  if (!LoRa.begin(FieldGatewayFrequency))
  {
    Serial.println("LoRa begin failed");
    while (true); // Drop into endless loop requiring restart
  }

  // Need to do this so field gateways pays attention to messsages from this device
  LoRa.enableCrc();
  LoRa.setSyncWord(FieldGatewaySyncWord);

#ifdef DEBUG_LORA
  LoRa.dumpRegisters(Serial);
#endif
  Serial.println("LoRa Setup done.");

  // Configure the Seeedstudio TH02 temperature & humidity sensor
  Serial.println("TH02 setup start");
  TH02.begin();
  delay(100);
  Serial.println("TH02 setup done");

  PayloadHeader((byte*)FieldGatewayAddress,strlen(FieldGatewayAddress), (byte*)DeviceAddress, strlen(DeviceAddress));

  Serial.println("Setup done");
  Serial.println();
}


void loop()
{
  float temperature ;
  float humidity ;

  Serial.println("Loop called");

  PayloadReset();

  // Read the temperature & humidity & battery voltage values then display nicely
  temperature = TH02.ReadTemperature();
  Serial.print("T:");
  Serial.print( temperature, 1 ) ;
  Serial.println( "C " ) ;

  PayloadAdd( "T", temperature, 1);

  humidity = TH02.ReadHumidity();
  Serial.print("H:");
  Serial.print( humidity, 0 ) ;
  Serial.println( "% " ) ;

  PayloadAdd( "H", humidity, 0) ;

#ifdef DEBUG_TELEMETRY
  Serial.print( "RFM9X/SX127X Payload len:");
  Serial.print( payloadLength );
  Serial.println( " bytes" );
#endif

  LoRa.beginPacket();
  LoRa.write( payload, payloadLength );
  LoRa.endPacket();

  Serial.println("Loop done");
  Serial.println();
  delay(LoopSleepDelaySeconds * 1000l);
}


void PayloadHeader( byte *to, byte toAddressLength, byte *from, byte fromAddressLength)
{
  byte addressesLength = toAddressLength + fromAddressLength ;

#ifdef DEBUG_TELEMETRY
  Serial.print("PayloadHeader- ");
  Serial.print( "To len:");
  Serial.print( toAddressLength );
  Serial.print( " From len:");
  Serial.print( fromAddressLength );
  Serial.print( " Header len:");
  Serial.print( addressesLength );
  Serial.println( );
#endif

  payloadLength = 0 ;

  // prepare the payload header with "To" Address length (top nibble) and "From" address length (bottom nibble)
  payload[payloadLength] = (toAddressLength << 4) | fromAddressLength ;
  payloadLength += 1;

  // Copy the "To" address into payload
  memcpy(&payload[payloadLength], to, toAddressLength);
  payloadLength += toAddressLength ;

  // Copy the "From" into payload
  memcpy(&payload[payloadLength], from, fromAddressLength);
  payloadLength += fromAddressLength ;
}


void PayloadAdd( const char *sensorId, float value, byte decimalPlaces)
{
  byte sensorIdLength = strlen( sensorId ) ;

#ifdef DEBUG_TELEMETRY
  Serial.print("PayloadAdd-float ");
  Serial.print( "SensorId:");
  Serial.print( sensorId );
  Serial.print( " Len:");
  Serial.print( sensorIdLength );
  Serial.print( " Value:");
  Serial.print( value, decimalPlaces );
  Serial.print( " payloadLen:");
  Serial.print( payloadLength);
#endif

  memcpy( &payload[payloadLength], sensorId,  sensorIdLength) ;
  payloadLength += sensorIdLength ;
  payload[ payloadLength] = SensorIdValueSeperator;
  payloadLength += 1 ;
  payloadLength += strlen( dtostrf(value, -1, decimalPlaces, (char *)&payload[payloadLength]));
  payload[ payloadLength] = SensorReadingSeperator;
  payloadLength += 1 ;
  
#ifdef DEBUG_TELEMETRY
  Serial.print( " payloadLen:");
  Serial.println( payloadLength);
#endif
}


void PayloadAdd( const char *sensorId, int value )
{
  byte sensorIdLength = strlen( sensorId ) ;

#ifdef DEBUG_TELEMETRY
  Serial.print("PayloadAdd-int ");
  Serial.print( "SensorId:");
  Serial.print( sensorId );
  Serial.print( " Len:");
  Serial.print( sensorIdLength );
  Serial.print( " Value:");
  Serial.print( value );
  Serial.print( " payloadLen:");
  Serial.print( payloadLength);
#endif  

  memcpy( &payload[payloadLength], sensorId,  sensorIdLength) ;
  payloadLength += sensorIdLength ;
  payload[ payloadLength] = SensorIdValueSeperator;
  payloadLength += 1 ;
  payloadLength += strlen( itoa( value,(char *)&payload[payloadLength],10));
  payload[ payloadLength] = SensorReadingSeperator;
  payloadLength += 1 ;
  
#ifdef DEBUG_TELEMETRY
  Serial.print( " payloadLen:");
  Serial.println( payloadLength);
#endif
}


void PayloadAdd( const char *sensorId, unsigned int value )
{
  byte sensorIdLength = strlen( sensorId ) ;

#ifdef DEBUG_TELEMETRY
  Serial.print("PayloadAdd-unsigned int ");
  Serial.print( "SensorId:");
  Serial.print( sensorId );
  Serial.print( " Len:");
  Serial.print( sensorIdLength );
  Serial.print( " Value:");
  Serial.print( value );
  Serial.print( " payloadLen:");
  Serial.print( payloadLength);
#endif  

  memcpy( &payload[payloadLength], sensorId,  sensorIdLength) ;
  payloadLength += sensorIdLength ;
  payload[ payloadLength] = SensorIdValueSeperator;
  payloadLength += 1 ;
  payloadLength += strlen( utoa( value,(char *)&payload[payloadLength],10));
  payload[ payloadLength] = SensorReadingSeperator;
  payloadLength += 1 ;

#ifdef DEBUG_TELEMETRY
  Serial.print( " payloadLen:");
  Serial.println( payloadLength);
#endif
}


void PayloadReset()
{
  byte fromAddressLength = payload[0] & 0xf ;
  byte toAddressLength = payload[0] >> 4 ;
  byte addressesLength = toAddressLength + fromAddressLength ;

  payloadLength = addressesLength + 1;

#ifdef DEBUG_TELEMETRY
  Serial.print("PayloadReset- ");
  Serial.print( "To len:");
  Serial.print( toAddressLength );
  Serial.print( " From len:");
  Serial.print( fromAddressLength );
  Serial.print( " Header len:");
  Serial.println( addressesLength );
#endif
}

To get the application to download I had to configure the board in the Arduino IDE

Then change the jumpers

Initially I had some problems deploying my software because I hadn’t followed the instructions (the wiki everyone referred to appeared to be offline) and run the installation batch file (New dev machine since my previous maple based project).

15:40:56.207 -> LoRa Setup done.
15:40:56.207 -> TH02 setup start
15:40:56.307 -> TH02 setup done
15:40:56.307 -> PayloadHeader- To len:8 From len:11 Header len:19
15:40:56.354 -> Setup done
15:40:56.354 -> 
15:40:56.354 -> Loop called
15:40:56.354 -> PayloadReset- To len:8 From len:11 Header len:19
15:40:56.408 -> T:23.9C 
15:40:56.408 -> PayloadAdd-float SensorId:T Len:1 Value:23.9 payloadLen:20 payloadLen:27
15:40:56.508 -> H:70% 
15:40:56.508 -> PayloadAdd-float SensorId:H Len:1 Value:70 payloadLen:27 payloadLen:32
15:40:56.608 -> RFM9X/SX127X Payload len:32 bytes
15:40:56.655 -> Loop done
15:40:56.655 -> 
15:41:26.647 -> Loop called
15:41:26.647 -> PayloadReset- To len:8 From len:11 Header len:19
15:41:26.684 -> T:24.0C 
15:41:26.730 -> PayloadAdd-float SensorId:T Len:1 Value:24.0 payloadLen:20 payloadLen:27
15:41:26.784 -> H:69% 
15:41:26.784 -> PayloadAdd-float SensorId:H Len:1 Value:69 payloadLen:27 payloadLen:32
15:41:26.884 -> RFM9X/SX127X Payload len:32 bytes
15:41:26.931 -> Loop done
15:41:26.931 -> 
15:41:56.904 -> Loop called
15:41:56.904 -> PayloadReset- To len:8 From len:11 Header len:19
15:41:56.948 -> T:24.1C 
15:41:56.982 -> PayloadAdd-float SensorId:T Len:1 Value:24.1 payloadLen:20 payloadLen:27
15:41:57.054 -> H:69% 
15:41:57.054 -> PayloadAdd-float SensorId:H Len:1 Value:69 payloadLen:27 payloadLen:32
15:41:57.157 -> RFM9X/SX127X Payload len:32 bytes
15:41:57.191 -> Loop done
15:41:57.191 -> 
15:42:27.211 -> Loop called
15:42:27.211 -> PayloadReset- To len:8 From len:11 Header len:19
15:42:27.258 -> T:24.1C 
15:42:27.258 -> PayloadAdd-float SensorId:T Len:1 Value:24.1 payloadLen:20 payloadLen:27
15:42:27.343 -> H:69% 
15:42:27.343 -> PayloadAdd-float SensorId:H Len:1 Value:69 payloadLen:27 payloadLen:32
15:42:27.427 -> RFM9X/SX127X Payload len:32 bytes
15:42:27.481 -> Loop done
15:42:27.481 -> 
15:42:57.504 -> Loop called
15:42:57.504 -> PayloadReset- To len:8 From len:11 Header len:19
15:42:57.504 -> T:24.1C 
15:42:57.550 -> PayloadAdd-float SensorId:T Len:1 Value:24.1 payloadLen:20 payloadLen:27
15:42:57.604 -> H:68% 
15:42:57.604 -> PayloadAdd-float SensorId:H Len:1 Value:68 payloadLen:27 payloadLen:32
15:42:57.704 -> RFM9X/SX127X Payload len:32 bytes
15:42:57.755 -> Loop done
15:42:57.755 -> 

I configured the device to upload to my Azure IoT Hub/Azure IoT Central gateway and it has been running reliably for a couple of days.

Azure IoT Central temperature and humidity values

Initially I had some configuration problems but I contacted Armtronix support and they promptly provided a couple of updated links for product and device documentation.