.NET nanoFramework RAK3172 LoRaWAN library basic connectivity

I have been working on a .NET nanoFramework library for the RAKwireless RAK3172 module for the last couple of weeks. The devices had been in a box under my desk for a couple of months so first step was to flash them with the latest firmware using my FTDI test harness.

RAK 3172 STM32F769I Discovery test rig

I use two hardware configurations for testing

My sample code has compile time options for synchronous and asynchronous operation. I also include the different nanoff command lines to make updating the test devices easier.

//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Copyright (c) May 2022, devMobile Software
//
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
//
//     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.
//
// https://docs.rakwireless.com/Product-Categories/WisDuo/RAK4200-Breakout-Board/AT-Command-Manual/
//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#define SERIAL_ASYNC_READ
//#define SERIAL_THREADED_READ
#define ST_STM32F769I_DISCOVERY      // nanoff --target ST_STM32F769I_DISCOVERY --update 
//#define ESP32_WROOM   //nanoff --target ESP32_PSRAM_REV0 --serialport COM17 --update
...

namespace devMobile.IoT.LoRaWAN.nanoFramework.RAK3172
{
	using System;
	using System.Diagnostics;
	using System.IO.Ports;
	using System.Threading;
#if ESP32_WROOM
	using global::nanoFramework.Hardware.Esp32; //need NuGet nanoFramework.Hardware.Esp32
#endif

	public class Program
	{
		private static SerialPort _SerialPort;
#if SERIAL_THREADED_READ
		private static Boolean _Continue = true;
#endif
#if ESP32_WROOM
		private const string SerialPortId = "COM2";
#endif
...
#if ST_STM32F769I_DISCOVERY
		private const string SerialPortId = "COM6";
#endif

		public static void Main()
		{
#if SERIAL_THREADED_READ
			Thread readThread = new Thread(SerialPortProcessor);
#endif

			Debug.WriteLine("devMobile.IoT.LoRaWAN.nanoFramework.RAK3172 BreakoutSerial starting");

			try
			{
				// set GPIO functions for COM2 (this is UART1 on ESP32)
#if ESP32_WROOM
				Configuration.SetPinFunction(Gpio.IO16, DeviceFunction.COM2_TX);
				Configuration.SetPinFunction(Gpio.IO17, DeviceFunction.COM2_RX);
#endif

				Debug.Write("Ports:");
				foreach (string port in SerialPort.GetPortNames())
				{
					Debug.Write($" {port}");
				}
				Debug.WriteLine("");

				using (_SerialPort = new SerialPort(SerialPortId))
				{
					// set parameters
					//_SerialPort.BaudRate = 9600;
					_SerialPort.BaudRate = 115200;
					_SerialPort.Parity = Parity.None;
					_SerialPort.DataBits = 8;
					_SerialPort.StopBits = StopBits.One;
					_SerialPort.Handshake = Handshake.None;
					_SerialPort.NewLine = "\r\n";

					//_SerialPort.ReadBufferSize = 128; 
					//_SerialPort.ReadBufferSize = 256; 
					_SerialPort.ReadBufferSize = 512; 
					//_SerialPort.ReadBufferSize = 1024;
					_SerialPort.ReadTimeout = 1000;

					//_SerialPort.WatchChar = '\n'; // May 2022 WatchChar event didn't fire github issue https://github.com/nanoframework/Home/issues/1035

#if SERIAL_ASYNC_READ
					_SerialPort.DataReceived += SerialDevice_DataReceived;
#endif

					_SerialPort.Open();

					_SerialPort.WatchChar = '\n';

#if SERIAL_THREADED_READ
					readThread.Start();
#endif

					for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++)
					{
						string atCommand;
						atCommand = "AT+VER=?";

                  Debug.WriteLine("");
						Debug.WriteLine($"{i} TX:{atCommand} bytes:{atCommand.Length}--------------------------------");
						_SerialPort.WriteLine(atCommand);

						Thread.Sleep(5000);
					}
				}
				Debug.WriteLine("Done");
			}
			catch (Exception ex)
			{
				Debug.WriteLine(ex.Message);
			}
		}

#if SERIAL_ASYNC_READ
		private static void SerialDevice_DataReceived(object sender, SerialDataReceivedEventArgs e)
		{
			SerialPort serialPort = (SerialPort)sender;

			switch (e.EventType)
			{
				case SerialData.Chars:
					break;

				case SerialData.WatchChar:
					string response = serialPort.ReadExisting();
					Debug.Write(response);
					break;
				default:
					Debug.Assert(false, $"e.EventType {e.EventType} unknown");
					break;
			}
		}
#endif

#if SERIAL_THREADED_READ
		public static void SerialPortProcessor()
		{

			while (_Continue)
			{
				try
				{
					string response = _SerialPort.ReadLine();
					//string response = _SerialPort.ReadExisting();
					Debug.Write(response);
				}
				catch (TimeoutException ex) 
				{
					Debug.WriteLine($"Timeout:{ex.Message}");
				}
			}
		}
#endif
	}
}

When I requested the RAK3172 version information with “AT+VER=?” the response was spilt over two lines which is a bit of a Pain in the Arse (PitA). The RAK3172 firmware also defaults 115200 baud which seems overkill considering the throughput of a LoRaWAN link.

Visual Studio Debug Output of Breakout Serial Application

While building the test application I encountered a few issues (STM32F769I DISCOVERY SerialPort.GetPortNames() port name text gets shorter, STM32F769I DISCOVERY Inconsistent SerialPort WatchChar behaviour after erase->power cycle->run & erase->run and No SerialPort.WatchChar events if WatchChar set before SerialPort opened) which slowed down development. The speed the nanoFramework team triages then fixes issues is amazing for a team of volunteers dotted around the world.

.NET nanoFramework RAK4200 Library Usage

After a two week “soak test” using a Sparkfun Thing Plus ESP32 WROOM and RAK42000 Breakout Board completed with no failures this final post covers the usage of the RAK4200LoRaWAN-NetNF library in a “real-world” application.

After a factory reset the DevEUI, JoinEUI (was AppEUI), and AppKey were reset, but the rest of the configuration appeared to be retained.

OK Work Mode: LoRaWAN
Region: AS923
MulticastEnable: false
DutycycleEnable: false
Send_repeat_cnt: 0
Join_mode: OTAA
DevEui: 0000000000000000
AppEui: 0000000000000000
AppKey: 00000000000000000000000000000000
Class: A
Joined Network:false
IsConfirm: unconfirm
AdrEnable: true
EnableRepeaterSupport: false
RX2_CHANNEL_FREQUENCY: 923200000, RX2_CHANNEL_DR:2
RX_WINDOW_DURATION: 3000ms
RECEIVE_DELAY_1: 1000ms
RECEIVE_DELAY_2: 2000ms
JOIN_ACCEPT_DELAY_1: 5000ms
JOIN_ACCEPT_DELAY_2: 6000ms
Current Datarate: 5
Primeval Datarate: 5
ChannelsTxPower: 0
UpLinkCounter: 0
DownLinkCounter: 0

I then ran the RAK4200LoRaWANDeviceClient with DEVICE_DEVEUI_SET (devEui from label on the device), OTAA to configure the AppEui and AppKey and the device connected to The Things Network on the second attempt (typo in the DevEui).

public static void Main()
{
	Result result;

	Debug.WriteLine("devMobile.IoT.RAK4200LoRaWANDeviceClient starting");

	try
	{
		// set GPIO functions for COM2 (this is UART1 on ESP32)
#if ESP32_WROOM
		Configuration.SetPinFunction(Gpio.IO16, DeviceFunction.COM2_TX);
		Configuration.SetPinFunction(Gpio.IO17, DeviceFunction.COM2_RX);
#endif

		Debug.Write("Ports:");
		foreach (string port in SerialPort.GetPortNames())
		{
			Debug.Write($" {port}");
		}
		Debug.WriteLine("");

		using (Rak4200LoRaWanDevice device = new Rak4200LoRaWanDevice())
		{
			result = device.Initialise(SerialPortId, 9600, Parity.None, 8, StopBits.One);
			if (result != Result.Success)
			{
				Debug.WriteLine($"Initialise failed {result}");
				return;
			}

#if CONFIRMED
			device.OnMessageConfirmation += OnMessageConfirmationHandler;
#endif
			device.OnReceiveMessage += OnReceiveMessageHandler;

#if FACTORY_RESET
			Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} FactoryReset");
			result = device.FactoryReset();
			if (result != Result.Success)
			{
				Debug.WriteLine($"FactoryReset failed {result}");
				return;
			}
#endif

#if DEVICE_DEVEUI_SET
			Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Device EUI");
			result = device.DeviceEui(Config.devEui);
			if (result != Result.Success)
			{
				Debug.WriteLine($"ADR on failed {result}");
				return;
			}
#endif

#if REGION_SET
			Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Region{Region}");
			result = device.Region(Region);
			if (result != Result.Success)
			{
				Debug.WriteLine($"Region on failed {result}");
				return;
			}
#endif

#if ADR_SET
			Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} ADR On");
			result = device.AdrOn();
			if (result != Result.Success)
			{
				Debug.WriteLine($"ADR on failed {result}");
				return;
			}
#endif
#if CONFIRMED
			Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Confirmed");
			result = device.UplinkMessageConfirmationOn();
			if (result != Result.Success)
			{
				Debug.WriteLine($"Confirm on failed {result}");
				return;
			}
#endif
#if UNCONFIRMED
			Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Unconfirmed");
			result = device.UplinkMessageConfirmationOff();
			if (result != Result.Success)
			{
				Debug.WriteLine($"Confirm off failed {result}");
				return;
			}
#endif

#if OTAA
			Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} OTAA");
			result = device.OtaaInitialise(Config.JoinEui, Config.AppKey);
			if (result != Result.Success)
			{
				Debug.WriteLine($"OTAA Initialise failed {result}");
				return;
			}
#endif

#if ABP
			Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} ABP");
			result = device.AbpInitialise(Config.DevAddress, Config.NwksKey, Config.AppsKey);
			if (result != Result.Success)
			{
				Debug.WriteLine($"ABP Initialise failed {result}");
				return;
			}
#endif

			Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Join start Timeout:{JoinTimeOut:hh:mm:ss}");
			result = device.Join(JoinTimeOut);
			if (result != Result.Success)
			{
				Debug.WriteLine($"Join failed {result}");
				return;
			}
			Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Join finish");

			while (true)
			{
#if PAYLOAD_BCD
				Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Send Timeout:{SendTimeout:hh:mm:ss} port:{MessagePort} payload BCD:{PayloadBcd}");
				result = device.Send(MessagePort, PayloadBcd, SendTimeout);
#endif
#if PAYLOAD_BYTES
				Debug.WriteLine($"{DateTime.UtcNow:hh:mm:ss} Send Timeout:{SendTimeout:hh:mm:ss} port:{MessagePort} payload Bytes:{BitConverter.ToString(PayloadBytes)}");
				result = device.Send(MessagePort, PayloadBytes, SendTimeout);
#endif
				if (result != Result.Success)
				{
					Debug.WriteLine($"Send failed {result}");
				}

				Thread.Sleep(new TimeSpan(0, 5, 0));
			}
		}
	}
	catch (Exception ex)
	{
		Debug.WriteLine(ex.Message);
	}
}

After configuring my Discovery kit with STM32F769NI MCU and RAK42000 Breakout Board test rig the RAK4200LoRaWANDeviceClient application could successfully connect to The Things Network with just ST_STM32F769I_DISCOVERY, PAYLOAD_BCD or PAYLOAD_BYTES and CONFIRMED or UNCONFIRMED defined.

Visual Studio Debug output for RAK4200LoRaWANDeviceClient minimal configuration connection
The Things Network “Live Data” for RAK4200LoRaWANDeviceClient minimal configuration connection

One of my client’s products has a configuration mode (button pressed as device starts) which enables a serial port (headers on board + FTDI module) for in field configuration of the onboard RAK4200 module.

.NET nanoFramework RAK4200 Factory Reset

The RAKwireless RAK4200 module has a really useful “reset to factory” AT Command

at+set_config=lora:default_parameters

To see what settings were erased I modified the BreakOutSerial application to send additional AT commands and display the responses.

public static void Main()
{
...
	Debug.WriteLine("devMobile.IoT.LoRaWAN.nanoFramework.RAK4200 BreakoutSerial starting");

	try
	{
		// set GPIO functions for COM2 (this is UART1 on ESP32)
#if ESP32_WROOM
		Configuration.SetPinFunction(Gpio.IO16, DeviceFunction.COM2_TX);
		Configuration.SetPinFunction(Gpio.IO17, DeviceFunction.COM2_RX);
#endif

		Debug.Write("Ports:");
		foreach (string port in SerialPort.GetPortNames())
		{
			Debug.Write($" {port}");
		}
		Debug.WriteLine("");

		using (_SerialPort = new SerialPort(SerialPortId))
		{
			// set parameters
			_SerialPort.BaudRate = 9600;
			//_SerialPort.BaudRate = 115200;
			_SerialPort.Parity = Parity.None;
			_SerialPort.DataBits = 8;
			_SerialPort.StopBits = StopBits.One;
			_SerialPort.Handshake = Handshake.None;
			_SerialPort.NewLine = "\r\n";

			//_SerialPort.ReadBufferSize = 128; 
			//_SerialPort.ReadBufferSize = 256; 
			_SerialPort.ReadBufferSize = 512; 
			//_SerialPort.ReadBufferSize = 1024;
			_SerialPort.ReadTimeout = 1000;

			//_SerialPort.WatchChar = '\n'; // May 2022 WatchChar event didn't fire github issue https://github.com/nanoframework/Home/issues/1035

#if SERIAL_ASYNC_READ
			_SerialPort.DataReceived += SerialDevice_DataReceived;
#endif

			_SerialPort.Open();

			_SerialPort.WatchChar = '\n';
...
			for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++)
			{
				string atCommand;
				atCommand = "at+version";
				//atCommand = "at+set_config=device:uart:1:9600";
				atCommand = "at+get_config=lora:status";
				//atCommand = "at+get_config=device:status";
				//atCommand = "at+get_config=lora:channel";
				//atCommand = "at+help";
				//atCommand = "at+set_config=device:restart";
				//atCommand = "at+set_config=lora:default_parameters";
				Debug.WriteLine("");
				Debug.WriteLine($"{i} TX:{atCommand} bytes:{atCommand.Length}--------------------------------");
				_SerialPort.WriteLine(atCommand);

				Thread.Sleep(5000);
			}
		}
		Debug.WriteLine("Done");
	}
	catch (Exception ex)
	{
		Debug.WriteLine(ex.Message);
	}
}

#if SERIAL_ASYNC_READ
private static void SerialDevice_DataReceived(object sender, SerialDataReceivedEventArgs e)
{
	SerialPort serialPort = (SerialPort)sender;

	switch (e.EventType)
	{
		case SerialData.Chars:
			break;

		case SerialData.WatchChar:
			string response = serialPort.ReadExisting();
			Debug.Write(response);
			break;
		default:
			Debug.Assert(false, $"e.EventType {e.EventType} unknown");
			break;
	}
}
#endif
...
}

After configuring my Sparkfun Thing Plus ESP32 WROOM + RAK42000 Breakout Board test rig the RAK4200LoRaWANDeviceClient application could successfully connect to The Things Network .

The thread '' (0x2) has exited with code 0 (0x0).
devMobile.IoT.LoRaWAN.nanoFramework.RAK4200 BreakoutSerial starting
0 TX:at+get_config=lora:status bytes:25--------------------------------
OK Work Mode: LoRaWAN
Region: AS923
MulticastEnable: false
DutycycleEnable: false
Send_repeat_cnt: 0
Join_mode: OTAA
DevEui:  6..............9
AppEui: 7..............4
AppKey: A.............................9
Class: A
Joined Network:false
IsConfirm: unconfirm
AdrEnable: true
EnableRepeaterSupport: false
RX2_CHANNEL_FREQUENCY: 923200000, RX2_CHANNEL_DR:2
RX_WINDOW_DURATION: 3000ms
RECEIVE_DELAY_1: 1000ms
RECEIVE_DELAY_2: 2000ms
JOIN_ACCEPT_DELAY_1: 5000ms
JOIN_ACCEPT_DELAY_2: 6000ms
Current Datarate: 5
Primeval Datarate: 5
ChannelsTxPower: 0
UpLinkCounter: 0
DownLinkCounter: 0

I then reset the RAK4200 device to “factory defaults”

The thread '<No Name>' (0x2) has exited with code 0 (0x0).
devMobile.IoT.LoRaWAN.nanoFramework.RAK4200 BreakoutSerial starting
Ports: COM5 COM6

0 TX:at+set_config=lora:default_parameters bytes:37--------------------------------
OK

The testrig would no longer connect as the device and network settings were invalid.

The thread '<No Name>' (0x2) has exited with code 0 (0x0).
devMobile.IoT.LoRaWAN.nanoFramework.RAK4200 BreakoutSerial starting
Ports: COM5 COM6

0 TX:at+get_config=lora:status bytes:25--------------------------------
OK Work Mode: LoRaWAN
Region: AS923
MulticastEnable: false
DutycycleEnable: false
Send_repeat_cnt: 0
Join_mode: OTAA
DevEui: 0000000000000000
AppEui: 0000000000000000
AppKey: 00000000000000000000000000000000
Class: A
Joined Network:false
IsConfirm: unconfirm
AdrEnable: true
EnableRepeaterSupport: false
RX2_CHANNEL_FREQUENCY: 923200000, RX2_CHANNEL_DR:2
RX_WINDOW_DURATION: 3000ms
RECEIVE_DELAY_1: 1000ms
RECEIVE_DELAY_2: 2000ms
JOIN_ACCEPT_DELAY_1: 5000ms
JOIN_ACCEPT_DELAY_2: 6000ms
Current Datarate: 5
Primeval Datarate: 5
ChannelsTxPower: 0
UpLinkCounter: 0
DownLinkCounter: 0

To “restore” the device configuration I ran the RAK4200LoRaWANDeviceClient application with DEVICE_DEVEUI_SET, OTAA, UNCONFIRMED, REGION_SET and ADR_SET defined.

The thread '<No Name>' (0x2) has exited with code 0 (0x0).
devMobile.IoT.LoRaWAN.nanoFramework.RAK4200 BreakoutSerial starting
Ports: COM2 COM3

0 TX:at+get_config=lora:status bytes:25--------------------------------
OK Work Mode: LoRaWAN
Region: AS923
MulticastEnable: false
DutycycleEnable: false
Send_repeat_cnt: 0
Join_mode: OTAA
DevEui: 6..............9
AppEui: 7.............4
AppKey: A.............................9
Class: A
Joined Network:false
IsConfirm: unconfirm
AdrEnable: true
EnableRepeaterSupport: false
RX2_CHANNEL_FREQUENCY: 923200000, RX2_CHANNEL_DR:2
RX_WINDOW_DURATION: 3000ms
RECEIVE_DELAY_1: 1000ms
RECEIVE_DELAY_2: 2000ms
JOIN_ACCEPT_DELAY_1: 5000ms
JOIN_ACCEPT_DELAY_2: 6000ms
Current Datarate: 5
Primeval Datarate: 5
ChannelsTxPower: 0
UpLinkCounter: 0
DownLinkCounter: 0

The testrig would then successfully connect to The Things Network. When the testrig was power cycled the device the configuration was retained.

.NET nanoFramework RAK4200 LoRaWAN library ABP Join

After getting my RAKwireless RAK4200 module to reliably connect to The Things Network(TTN) using Over The Air Activation(OTAA) the next step was to built an Activation By Personalisation(ABP) sample application.

I modified the NetworkJoinOTAA sample(based on the asynchronous version of BreakOutSerial) to send the required sequence of AT commands and display the responses.

namespace devMobile.IoT.LoRaWAN.nanoFramework.RAK4200
{
   using System;
   using System.Diagnostics;
   using System.IO.Ports;
   using System.Text;
   using System.Threading;
#if ESP32_WROOM
   using global::nanoFramework.Hardware.Esp32; ///need NuGet nanoFramework.Hardware.Esp32
#endif

   public class Program
   {
#if ST_STM32F769I_DISCOVERY
      private const string SerialPortId = "COM6";
#endif
#if ESP32_WROOM
      private const string SerialPortId = "COM2";
#endif
      private const string DevEui = "...";
      private const string AppEui = "...";
      private const string AppKey = "...";
      private const byte MessagePort = 1;
      private const string Payload = "01020304"; // Is AQIDBA==

      public static void Main()
      {
         string response;

         Debug.WriteLine("devMobile.IoT.Rak4200.NetworkJoinOTAA starting");

         try
         {
#if ESP32_WROOM
            Configuration.SetPinFunction(Gpio.IO16, DeviceFunction.COM2_TX);
            Configuration.SetPinFunction(Gpio.IO17, DeviceFunction.COM2_RX);
#endif

            Debug.Write("Ports:");
            foreach (string port in SerialPort.GetPortNames())
            {
               Debug.Write($" {port}");
            }
            Debug.WriteLine("");

            using (SerialPort serialDevice = new SerialPort(SerialPortId))
            {
               // set parameters
               serialDevice.BaudRate = 9600;
               //_SerialPort.BaudRate = 115200;
               serialDevice.Parity = Parity.None;
               serialDevice.StopBits = StopBits.One;
               serialDevice.Handshake = Handshake.None;
               serialDevice.DataBits = 8;

               serialDevice.ReadTimeout = 10000;
               //serialDevice.ReadBufferSize = 128; 
               //serialDevice.ReadBufferSize = 256; 
               serialDevice.ReadBufferSize = 512;
               //serialDevice.ReadBufferSize = 1024;

               serialDevice.NewLine = "\r\n";

               serialDevice.DataReceived += SerialDevice_DataReceived;

               serialDevice.Open();

               serialDevice.WatchChar = '\n';

               // clear out the RX buffer
               serialDevice.ReadExisting();
               response = serialDevice.ReadExisting();
               Debug.WriteLine($"Response :{response.Trim()} bytes:{response.Length}");
               Thread.Sleep(500);

               // Set the Working mode to LoRaWAN
               Debug.WriteLine("lora:work_mode:0");
               serialDevice.WriteLine("at+set_config=lora:work_mode:0");
               Thread.Sleep(1500);

               // Set the JoinMode
               Debug.WriteLine("lora:join_mode");
               serialDevice.WriteLine("at+set_config=lora:join_mode:0");
               Thread.Sleep(500);

               // Set the Class
               Debug.WriteLine("lora:class");
               serialDevice.WriteLine("at+set_config=lora:class:0");
               Thread.Sleep(500);

               // Set the Region to AS923
               Debug.WriteLine("lora:region");
               serialDevice.WriteLine("at+set_config=lora:region:AS923");
               Thread.Sleep(500);

               // Set the devEUI
               Debug.WriteLine("lora:dev_eui");
               serialDevice.WriteLine($"at+set_config=lora:dev_eui:{DevEui}");
               Thread.Sleep(500);

               // Set the appEUI
               Debug.WriteLine("lora:app_eui");
               serialDevice.WriteLine($"at+set_config=lora:app_eui:{AppEui}");
               Thread.Sleep(500);

               // Set the appKey
               Debug.WriteLine("lora:app_key");
               serialDevice.WriteLine($"at+set_config=lora:app_key:{AppKey}");
               Thread.Sleep(500);

               // Set the Confirm flag
               Debug.WriteLine("lora:confirm");
               serialDevice.WriteLine("at+set_config=lora:confirm:0");
               Thread.Sleep(500);

               Debug.WriteLine("lora:adr");
               serialDevice.WriteLine("at+set_config=lora:adr:1");
               Thread.Sleep(500);

               // Join the network
               Debug.WriteLine("at+join");
               serialDevice.WriteLine("at+join");
               Thread.Sleep(10000);

               byte counter = 1;
               while (true)
               {
                  // Send the BCD messages
                  string payload = $"{Payload}{counter:X2}";
                  Debug.WriteLine($"at+send=lora:{MessagePort}:{payload}");
                  serialDevice.WriteLine($"at+send=lora:{MessagePort}:{payload}");

                  counter += 1;

                  Thread.Sleep(300000);
               }
            }
         }
         catch (Exception ex)
         {
            Debug.WriteLine(ex.Message);
         }
      }

      private static void SerialDevice_DataReceived(object sender, SerialDataReceivedEventArgs e)
      {
         SerialPort serialPort = (SerialPort)sender;
         string response;

         switch (e.EventType)
         {
            case SerialData.Chars:
               break;

            case SerialData.WatchChar:
               response = serialPort.ReadExisting();
               Debug.Write(response);
               break;
            default:
               Debug.Assert(false, $"e.EventType {e.EventType} unknown");
               break;
         }
      }
   }
}

The NetworkJoinABP application assumes that all of the AT commands succeed.

TTN Console live data tab connection process
Visual Studio Output windows displaying connection process and a D2C message

I have been using at+set_config=lora:default_parameters set the WisDuo RAK4200 back to factory settings so I can figure out what settings are persisted by a “at+set_config=device:restart” and which ones need to be set every time the application is run.