TTI V3 Gateway Azure IoT Central Digital Twin Definition Language(DTDL) support

Over the last couple of days I have added limited Digital Twin Definition Language(DTDLV2) support to my The Things Industries(TTI) V3 connector so that Azure IoT Central devices can be “zero touch” provisioned. For this blog post I used five Seeeduino LoRaWAN devices left over from another abandoned project.

The first step was to configure and Azure IoT Central enrollment group (ensure “Automatically connect devices in this group” is on) and copy the IDScope and Group Enrollment key to the appsettings.json file (see sample file below for more detail)

Azure IoT Central Enrollment Group configuration

Then I created an Azure IoT Central template for the seeeduino LoRAWAN devices which are running software (developed with the Arduino tooling) that read values from a Grove – Temperature&Humidity sensor. The naming of telemetry properties in specified by the Cayenne Low Power Protocol(LPP) encoder/decoder (I check the decoded payload in TTI EndDevice “Live Data” tab).

Configuring Seeeduino LoRaWAN device template

Then I mapped the Azure IoT Central Device Group to my Azure IoT Central Enrollment Group

Associating Device Group with Group Enrollment configuration

The Device Template @Id can be configured as the “default” template for all the devices in a TTI application in the app.settings.json file.

   "ProgramSettings": {
      "Applications": {
      "seeeduinolorawan": {
        "AzureSettings": {
           "DeviceProvisioningServiceSettings": {
              "IdScope": "...",
              "GroupEnrollmentKey": "..."
         "DTDLModelId": "dtmi:ttnv3connectorclient:SeeeduinoLoRaWAN4cz;1",
         "MQTTAccessKey": "...",
         "DeviceIntegrationDefault": true,
         "DevicePageSize": 10

The Device Template @Id can also be set using a dtdlmodelid attribute in a TTI end device settings so devices can be individually configured.

TTI Application EndDevice dtdlmodelid attribute usage

At startup the TTI Gateway enumerates through the devices in each application configured in the app.settings.json. The Azure Device Provisioning Service(DPS) is used to retrieve each device’s connection string and configure it in Azure IoT Central if required.

Azure IoT Central Device Group with no provisioned Devices
TTI Connector application connecting and provisioning EndDevices
Azure IoT Central devices mapped to an Azure IoT Central Template via the modelID

The ProvisioningRegistrationAdditionalData optional parameter of the DPS RegisterAsync method has a JSON property which is used to the specify the device ModelID.

using (var transport = new ProvisioningTransportHandlerAmqp(TransportFallbackType.TcpOnly))
	ProvisioningDeviceClient provClient = ProvisioningDeviceClient.Create( 

	DeviceRegistrationResult result;

	if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(modelId))
		ProvisioningRegistrationAdditionalData provisioningRegistrationAdditionalData = new ProvisioningRegistrationAdditionalData()
			JsonData = $"{{\"modelId\": \"{modelId}\"}}"

		result = await provClient.RegisterAsync(provisioningRegistrationAdditionalData, stoppingToken);
		result = await provClient.RegisterAsync(stoppingToken);

	if (result.Status != ProvisioningRegistrationStatusType.Assigned)
		_logger.LogError("Config-DeviceID:{0} Status:{1} RegisterAsync failed ", deviceId, result.Status);

		return false;

	IAuthenticationMethod authentication = new DeviceAuthenticationWithRegistrySymmetricKey(result.DeviceId, (securityProvider as SecurityProviderSymmetricKey).GetPrimaryKey());

	deviceClient = DeviceClient.Create(result.AssignedHub, authentication, transportSettings);

My implementation was “inspired” by TemperatureController project in the PnP Device Samples.

Azure IoT Central Dashboard with Seeeduino LoRaWAN devices around my house that were “automagically” provisioned

I need to do some testing to confirm my code works reliably with both DPS and user provided connection strings. The RegisterAsync call is currently taking about four seconds which could be an issue for TTI applications with many devices.

2 thoughts on “TTI V3 Gateway Azure IoT Central Digital Twin Definition Language(DTDL) support

  1. Pingback: TTI V3 Connector Azure IoT Central Cloud to Device(C2D) | devMobile's blog

  2. Pingback: TTI V3 Connector Azure IoT Central Device Provisioning Service(DPS) support | devMobile's blog

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