RFM95/96/97/98 shield library Part4

Transmit Basic

Slight change of plan I decided that proving I could send a message and interoperability with another LoRa stack would be more interesting…

My first attempt didn’t have much range so I tried turning on the PA_BOOST pin (in RegPaConfig) which improved the range and Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) on my Arduino client (equipped with Dragino shield). This was running the Arduino LoRa library LoRaSetSyncWord example.

/*
  LoRa Duplex communication with Sync Word

  Sends a message every half second, and polls continually
  for new incoming messages. Sets the LoRa radio's Sync Word.

  Spreading factor is basically the radio's network ID. Radios with different
  Sync Words will not receive each other's transmissions. This is one way you
  can filter out radios you want to ignore, without making an addressing scheme.

  See the Semtech datasheet, http://www.semtech.com/images/datasheet/sx1276.pdf
  for more on Sync Word.

  created 28 April 2017
  by Tom Igoe
*/
#include
#include
const int csPin = 10;          // LoRa radio chip select
const int resetPin = 9;       // LoRa radio reset
const int irqPin = 2;         // change for your board; must be a hardware interrupt pin

byte msgCount = 0;            // count of outgoing messages
int interval = 2000;          // interval between sends
long lastSendTime = 0;        // time of last packet send

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(9600);                   // initialize serial
  while (!Serial);

  Serial.println("LoRa Duplex - Set sync word");

  // override the default CS, reset, and IRQ pins (optional)
  LoRa.setPins(csPin, resetPin, irqPin);// set CS, reset, IRQ pin

  if (!LoRa.begin(915E6)) {             // initialize ratio at 915 MHz
    Serial.println("LoRa init failed. Check your connections.");
    while (true);                       // if failed, do nothing
  }

  LoRa.setSyncWord(0x12);           // ranges from 0-0xFF, default 0x34, see API docs

  LoRa.dumpRegisters(Serial);
  Serial.println("LoRa init succeeded.");
}

void loop() {
  if (millis() - lastSendTime > interval) {
    String message = "HeLoRa World! ";   // send a message
    message += msgCount;
    sendMessage(message);
    Serial.println("Sending " + message);
    lastSendTime = millis();            // timestamp the message
    interval = random(2000) + 1000;    // 2-3 seconds
    msgCount++;
  }

  // parse for a packet, and call onReceive with the result:
  onReceive(LoRa.parsePacket());
}

void sendMessage(String outgoing) {
  LoRa.beginPacket();                   // start packet
  LoRa.print(outgoing);                 // add payload
  LoRa.endPacket();                     // finish packet and send it
  msgCount++;                           // increment message ID
}

void onReceive(int packetSize) {
  if (packetSize == 0) return;          // if there's no packet, return

  // read packet header bytes:
  String incoming = "";

  while (LoRa.available()) {
    incoming += (char)LoRa.read();
  }

  Serial.println("Message: " + incoming);
  Serial.println("RSSI: " + String(LoRa.packetRssi()));
  Serial.println("Snr: " + String(LoRa.packetSnr()));
  Serial.println();
}

The Windows 10 IoT core application

//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Copyright (c) August 2018, devMobile Software
//
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
//
//     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.
//
//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
namespace devMobile.IoT.Rfm9x.TransmitBasic
{
   using System;
   using System.Diagnostics;
   using System.Text;
   using System.Runtime.InteropServices.WindowsRuntime;
   using System.Threading.Tasks;
   using Windows.ApplicationModel.Background;
   using Windows.Devices.Spi;
   using Windows.Devices.Gpio;

	public sealed class Rfm9XDevice
	{
		private SpiDevice Rfm9XLoraModem = null;
		private GpioPin ChipSelectGpioPin = null;
		private const byte RegisterAddressReadMask = 0X7f;
		private const byte RegisterAddressWriteMask = 0x80;

		public Rfm9XDevice(byte chipSelectPin, byte resetPin)
		{
			SpiController spiController = SpiController.GetDefaultAsync().AsTask().GetAwaiter().GetResult();
			var settings = new SpiConnectionSettings(0)
			{
				ClockFrequency = 500000,
				Mode = SpiMode.Mode0,
			};

			// Chip select pin configuration
			GpioController gpioController = GpioController.GetDefault();
			ChipSelectGpioPin = gpioController.OpenPin(chipSelectPin);
			ChipSelectGpioPin.SetDriveMode(GpioPinDriveMode.Output);
			ChipSelectGpioPin.Write(GpioPinValue.High);

			// Reset pin configuration for factory reset
			GpioPin resetGpioPin = gpioController.OpenPin(resetPin);
			resetGpioPin.SetDriveMode(GpioPinDriveMode.Output);
			resetGpioPin.Write(GpioPinValue.Low);
			Task.Delay(10);
			resetGpioPin.Write(GpioPinValue.High);
			Task.Delay(10);

			Rfm9XLoraModem = spiController.GetDevice(settings);
		}

		public Byte RegisterReadByte(byte address)
		{
			byte[] writeBuffer = new byte[] { address &= RegisterAddressReadMask };
			byte[] readBuffer = new byte[1];
			Debug.Assert(Rfm9XLoraModem != null);

			ChipSelectGpioPin.Write(GpioPinValue.Low);
			Rfm9XLoraModem.Write(writeBuffer);
			Rfm9XLoraModem.Read(readBuffer);
			ChipSelectGpioPin.Write(GpioPinValue.High);

			return readBuffer[0];
		}

		public ushort RegisterReadWord(byte address)
		{
			byte[] writeBuffer = new byte[] { address &= RegisterAddressReadMask };
			byte[] readBuffer = new byte[2];
			Debug.Assert(Rfm9XLoraModem != null);

			ChipSelectGpioPin.Write(GpioPinValue.Low);
			Rfm9XLoraModem.Write(writeBuffer);
			Rfm9XLoraModem.Read(readBuffer);
			ChipSelectGpioPin.Write(GpioPinValue.High);

			return (ushort)(readBuffer[1] + (readBuffer[0] << 8));
		}

		public byte[] RegisterRead(byte address, int length)
		{
			byte[] writeBuffer = new byte[] { address &= RegisterAddressReadMask };
			byte[] readBuffer = new byte[length];
			Debug.Assert(Rfm9XLoraModem != null);

			ChipSelectGpioPin.Write(GpioPinValue.Low);
			Rfm9XLoraModem.Write(writeBuffer);
			Rfm9XLoraModem.Read(readBuffer);
			ChipSelectGpioPin.Write(GpioPinValue.High);

			return readBuffer;
		}

		public void RegisterWriteByte(byte address, byte value)
		{
			byte[] writeBuffer = new byte[] { address |= RegisterAddressWriteMask, value };
			Debug.Assert(Rfm9XLoraModem != null);

			ChipSelectGpioPin.Write(GpioPinValue.Low);
			Rfm9XLoraModem.Write(writeBuffer);
			ChipSelectGpioPin.Write(GpioPinValue.High);
		}

		public void RegisterWriteWord(byte address, ushort value)
		{
			byte[] valueBytes = BitConverter.GetBytes(value);
			byte[] writeBuffer = new byte[] { address |= RegisterAddressWriteMask, valueBytes[0], valueBytes[1] };
			Debug.Assert(Rfm9XLoraModem != null);

			ChipSelectGpioPin.Write(GpioPinValue.Low);
			Rfm9XLoraModem.Write(writeBuffer);
			ChipSelectGpioPin.Write(GpioPinValue.High);
		}

		public void RegisterWrite(byte address, [ReadOnlyArray()] byte[] bytes)
		{
			byte[] writeBuffer = new byte[1 + bytes.Length];
			Debug.Assert(Rfm9XLoraModem != null);

			Array.Copy(bytes, 0, writeBuffer, 1, bytes.Length);
			writeBuffer[0] = address |= RegisterAddressWriteMask;

			ChipSelectGpioPin.Write(GpioPinValue.Low);
			Rfm9XLoraModem.Write(writeBuffer);
			ChipSelectGpioPin.Write(GpioPinValue.High);
		}

		public void RegisterDump()
		{
			Debug.WriteLine("Register dump");
			for (byte registerIndex = 0; registerIndex <= 0x42; registerIndex++)
			{
				byte registerValue = this.RegisterReadByte(registerIndex);

				Debug.WriteLine("Register 0x{0:x2} - Value 0X{1:x2} - Bits {2}", registerIndex, registerValue, Convert.ToString(registerValue, 2).PadLeft(8, '0'));
			}
		}
	}

	public sealed class StartupTask : IBackgroundTask
	{
		private const byte ChipSelectLine = 25;
		private const byte ResetLine = 17;
		private Rfm9XDevice rfm9XDevice = new Rfm9XDevice(ChipSelectLine, ResetLine);

		public void Run(IBackgroundTaskInstance taskInstance)
		{
			// Put device into LoRa + Sleep mode
			rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x01, 0b10000000); // RegOpMode 

			// Set the frequency to 915MHz
			byte[] frequencyWriteBytes = { 0xE4, 0xC0, 0x00 }; // RegFrMsb, RegFrMid, RegFrLsb
			rfm9XDevice.RegisterWrite(0x06, frequencyWriteBytes);

			// More power - PA_BOOST
			rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x09, 0b10000000); // RegPaConfig

			while (true)
			{
				rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x0E, 0x0); // RegFifoTxBaseAddress 

				// Set the Register Fifo address pointer
				rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x0D, 0x0); // RegFifoAddrPtr 

				string messageText = "Hello LoRa!";

				// load the message into the fifo
				byte[] messageBytes = UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(messageText);
				foreach ( byte b in messageBytes )
				{
					rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x0, b); // RegFifo
				}

				// Set the length of the message in the fifo
				rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x22, (byte)messageBytes.Length); // RegPayloadLength

				Debug.WriteLine("Sending {0} bytes message {1}", messageBytes.Length, messageText);
				/// Set the mode to LoRa + Transmit
				rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x01, 0b10000011); // RegOpMode 

				// Wait until send done, no timeouts in PoC
				Debug.WriteLine("Send-wait");
				byte IrqFlags = rfm9XDevice.RegisterReadByte(0x12); // RegIrqFlags
				while((IrqFlags & 0b00001000) == 0 )  // wait until TxDone cleared
				{
					Task.Delay(10).Wait();
					IrqFlags = rfm9XDevice.RegisterReadByte(0x12); // RegIrqFlags
					Debug.Write(".");
				}
				Debug.WriteLine("");
				rfm9XDevice.RegisterWriteByte(0x12, 0b00001000); // clear TxDone bit
				Debug.WriteLine( "Send-Done");

				Task.Delay(30000).Wait();
			}
		}
	}
}

This PoC code is starting to get a bit nasty with magic numbers and no error checking. Next steps are either some refactoring or getting a basic packet receive working…

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