.NET Core web API + Dapper – Lookup

Looking up and searching

This StockItemsLookupController has methods for looking up a single record using the StockItemID and retrieving a list of records with a name that “matches” the search text. In my initial version the length of the embedded Structured Query Language(SQL) which spanned multiple lines was starting to get out of hand.

ALTER PROCEDURE [Warehouse].[StockItemsStockItemLookupV1]
		@StockItemID as int
AS
BEGIN
	SELECT [StockItems].[StockItemID] as "ID"  
			,[StockItems].[StockItemName] as "Name" 
			,[StockItems].[UnitPrice]
			,[StockItems].[RecommendedRetailPrice] 
			,[StockItems].[TaxRate]
			,[StockItems].[QuantityPerOuter]
			,[StockItems].[TypicalWeightPerUnit]
			,[UnitPackage].[PackageTypeName] as "UnitPackageName"
			,[OuterPackage].[PackageTypeName] as "OuterPackageName"
			,[Supplier].[SupplierID] 
			,[Supplier].[SupplierName] 
	FROM[Warehouse].[StockItems] as StockItems  
	INNER JOIN[Warehouse].[PackageTypes] as UnitPackage ON ([StockItems].[UnitPackageID] = [UnitPackage].[PackageTypeID]) 
	INNER JOIN[Warehouse].[PackageTypes] as OuterPackage ON ([StockItems].[OuterPackageID] = [OuterPackage].[PackageTypeID]) 
	INNER JOIN[Purchasing].[Suppliers] as Supplier ON ([StockItems].SupplierID = [Supplier].]SupplierID])
	WHERE[StockItems].[StockItemID] = @StockItemId
END

The query also returns the inner/outer packaging and the supplier name (plus supplierId for creating a link to the Supplier’s details) to make the example more realistic.

[HttpGet("{id}")]
public async Task<ActionResult<Model.StockItemGetDtoV1>> Get([Range(1, int.MaxValue, ErrorMessage = "Stock item id must greater than 0")] int id)
{
	Model.StockItemGetDtoV1 response = null;

	try
	{
		using (SqlConnection db = new SqlConnection(this.connectionString))
		{
			response = await db.QuerySingleOrDefaultAsync<Model.StockItemGetDtoV1>(sql: "[Warehouse].[StockItemsStockItemLookupV1]", param: new { stockItemId=id }, commandType: CommandType.StoredProcedure);
		}

		if (response == default)
		{
			logger.LogInformation("StockItem:{0} not found", id);

			return this.NotFound($"StockItem:{id} image not found");
		}
	}
	catch (SqlException ex)
	{
		logger.LogError(ex, "Looking up a StockItem with Id:{0}", id);

		return this.StatusCode(StatusCodes.Status500InternalServerError);
	}

	return this.Ok(response);
}

This simple name search also uses the FromQuery attribute (like the pagination example) to populate a Data Transfer Object(DTO) with request query string parameters

[HttpGet]
public async Task<ActionResult<IAsyncEnumerable<Model.StockItemListDtoV1>>> Get([FromQuery] Model.StockItemNameSearchDtoV1 request)
{
	IEnumerable<Model.StockItemListDtoV1> response = null;

	try
	{
		using (SqlConnection db = new SqlConnection(this.connectionString))
		{
			response = await db.QueryAsync<Model.StockItemListDtoV1>(sql: "[Warehouse].[StockItemsNameSearchV1]", param: request, commandType: CommandType.StoredProcedure);
		}
	}
	catch (SqlException ex)
	{
		logger.LogError(ex, "Searching for list of StockItems with name like:{0}", request);

		return this.StatusCode(StatusCodes.Status500InternalServerError);
	}

	return this.Ok(response);
}

The request DTO properties have Data Annotations to ensure the values are valid and suitable error messages are displayed if they are not. The controller GET method will not even be called if the DTO is missing or the values are incorrect. I would use constants for the lengths etc. and the attribute value error messages can be loaded from resource files for multiple language support.

public class StockItemNameSearchDtoV1
{
	[Required]
	[MinLength(3, ErrorMessage = "The name search text must be at least 3 characters long")]
	public string SearchText { get; set; }

	[Required]
	[Range(1, int.MaxValue, ErrorMessage = "MaximumRowsToReturn must be present and greater than 0")]
	public int MaximumRowsToReturn { get; set; }
}

The SELECT TOP command to limit the number of records returned. To improve performance the results of this query could be cached but the result set might need to be filtered based on the current user.

ALTER PROCEDURE [Warehouse].[StockItemsSearchV1]
           @SearchText nvarchar(100),
           @MaximumRowsToReturn int
AS
BEGIN
    SELECT TOP(@MaximumRowsToReturn) [StockItemID] as "ID"
		   ,[StockItemName] as "Name"
		   ,[RecommendedRetailPrice]
		   ,[TaxRate]
    FROM Warehouse.StockItems
    WHERE SearchDetails LIKE N'%' + @SearchText + N'%'
    ORDER BY [StockItemName]
END;

I have used this approach to populate a list of selectable options as a user types their search text.

.NET Core web API + Dapper – Pagination

Pagination for payload size reduction

This controller method returns a limited number of records(pageSize) from a position(pageNumber) in a database query resultset to reduce the size of the response payload.

The SQL command uses the ROWS FETCH NEXT … ROWS ONLY syntax, The use of this approach is not really highlighted in official developer documentation (though I maybe missing the obvious).

There is some discussion in the ORDER BY clause syntax documentation.

Using OFFSET and FETCH to limit the rows returned

We recommend that you use the OFFSET and FETCH clauses instead of the TOP clause to implement a query paging solution and limit the number of rows sent to a client application.

Using OFFSET and FETCH as a paging solution requires running the query one time for each “page” of data returned to the client application. For example, to return the results of a query in 10-row increments, you must execute the query one time to return rows 1 to 10 and then run the query again to return rows 11 to 20 and so on. Each query is independent and not related to each other in any way. This means that, unlike using a cursor in which the query is executed once and state is maintained on the server, the client application is responsible for tracking state

[HttpGet]
public async Task<ActionResult<IAsyncEnumerable<Model.StockItemListDtoV1>>> Get([FromQuery] Model.StockItemPagingDtoV1 request)
{
	IEnumerable<Model.StockItemListDtoV1> response = null;

	try
	{
		var parameters = new DynamicParameters();

		parameters.Add("@PageNumber", request.PageNumber);
		parameters.Add("@PageSize", request.PageSize);

		using (SqlConnection db = new SqlConnection(this.connectionString))
		{
			response = await db.QueryAsync<Model.StockItemListDtoV1>(sql: @"SELECT [StockItemID] as ""ID"", [StockItemName] as ""Name"", [RecommendedRetailPrice], [TaxRate] FROM[Warehouse].[StockItems] ORDER BY ID OFFSET @PageSize * (@PageNumber-1) ROWS FETCH NEXT @PageSize ROWS ONLY", param: parameters, commandType: CommandType.Text);
		}
	}
	catch (SqlException ex)
	{
		logger.LogError(ex, "Retrieving list of StockItems with PageSize:{0} PageNumber:{1}", request.PageSize, request.PageNumber);

		return this.StatusCode(StatusCodes.Status500InternalServerError);
	}

	return this.Ok(response);
}

This sample also uses the FromQuery attribute to populate a Data Transfer Object(DTO) with request query string parameters

	public class StockItemPagingDtoV1
	{
		[Required]
		[Range(1, int.MaxValue, ErrorMessage = "PageSize must be present and greater than 0")]
		public int PageSize { get; set; }

		[Required]
		[Range(1, int.MaxValue, ErrorMessage = "PageNumber must be present and greater than 0")]
		public int PageNumber { get; set; }
	}

The request DTO properties have Data Annotations to ensure the values are valid and suitable error messages are displayed if they are not. The controller GET method will not even be called if the DTO is missing or the values are incorrect. I would use constants for the lengths etc. and the attribute value error messages can be loaded from resource files for multiple language support.

http://localhost:36739/api/StockItemsPagination/

The result is

ols.ietf.org/html/rfc7231#section-6.5.1″,”title”:”One or more validation errors occurred.”,”status”:400,”traceId”:”00-917b6336aa8828468c6d78fb73dbe446-f72fc74b22ce724b-00″,”errors”:{“PageSize”:[“PageSize must be present and greater than 0”],”PageNumber”:[“PageNumber must be present and greater than 0”]}}

http://localhost:36739/api/StockItemsPagination?pageSize=10

{“type”:”https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7231#section-6.5.1&#8243;,”title”:”One or more validation errors occurred.”,”status”:400,”traceId”:”00-dd5f2683c6d7dc4a84bb04949703fc34-0c3658e2e54c2648-00″,”errors”:{“PageNumber”:[“PageNumber must be present and greater than 0”]}}

https://localhost:36739/api/StockItemsPagination?pageSize=10

The result is

{“type”:”https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7231#section-6.5.1&#8243;,”title”:”One or more validation errors occurred.”,”status”:400,”traceId”:”00-63f591ee3bfdc7418a83afbdba2faf7f-3d2ea994eb0c5c49-00″,”errors”:{“PageSize”:[“PageSize must be present and greater than 0”]}}

The amount of code can be reduced a bit further by dropping the dynamic parameter and passing the StockItemListDtoV1 object is as a parameter.

[HttpGet]
public async Task<ActionResult<IAsyncEnumerable<Model.StockItemListDtoV1>>> Get([FromQuery] Model.StockItemPagingDtoV1 request)
{
	IEnumerable<Model.StockItemListDtoV1> response = null;

	try
	{
		using (SqlConnection db = new SqlConnection(this.connectionString))
		{
			response = await db.QueryAsync<Model.StockItemListDtoV1>(sql: @"SELECT [StockItemID] as ""ID"", [StockItemName] as ""Name"", [RecommendedRetailPrice], [TaxRate] FROM[Warehouse].[StockItems] ORDER BY ID OFFSET @PageSize * (@PageNumber-1) ROWS FETCH NEXT @PageSize ROWS ONLY", param: request, commandType: CommandType.Text);
		}
	}
	catch (SqlException ex)
	{
		logger.LogError(ex, "StockItemsPagination exception retrieving list of StockItems with PageSize:{0} PageNumber:{1}", request.PageSize, request.PageNumber);

		return this.StatusCode(StatusCodes.Status500InternalServerError);
	}

	return this.Ok(response);
}

I use both approaches, for example if database fields or parameters have quite a different naming convention to C# properties (with query DTOs then can often be fixed with attributes) I would use the explicit approach .The later approach also had slightly better code metrics

Metrics for version with DynamicPararmeters
Metrics for version with DTO parameters

.NET Core web API + Dapper – Asynchronicity

Asynchronous is always better, yeah nah

For a trivial controller like the one below the difference between synchronous and asynchronous calls is most probably negligible, the asynchronous versions may even be slightly slower. ASP.NET Core web API applications should be designed to process many requests concurrently.

The Dapper library has the following asynchronous methods

These asynchronous methods enable a small pool of threads to process thousands of concurrent requests by not waiting on blocking database calls. Rather than waiting on a long-running synchronous database call to complete, the thread can work on another request.

namespace devMobile.WebAPIDapper.Lists.Controllers
{
	[ApiController]
	[Route("api/[controller]")]
	public class StockItemsAsyncController : ControllerBase
	{
		private readonly string connectionString;
		private readonly ILogger<StockItemsAsyncController> logger;

		public StockItemsAsyncController(IConfiguration configuration, ILogger<StockItemsAsyncController> logger)
		{
			this.connectionString = configuration.GetSection("ConnectionStrings").GetSection("WideWorldImportersDatabase").Value;

			this.logger = logger;
		}

		[HttpGet]
		public async Task<ActionResult<IAsyncEnumerable<Model.StockItemListDtoV1>>> Get()
		{
			IEnumerable<Model.StockItemListDtoV1> response = null;

			try
			{
				using (SqlConnection db = new SqlConnection(this.connectionString))
				{
					response = await db.QueryAsync<Model.StockItemListDtoV1>(sql: @"SELECT [StockItemID] as ""ID"", [StockItemName] as ""Name"", [RecommendedRetailPrice], [TaxRate] FROM [Warehouse].[StockItems]", commandType: CommandType.Text);
				}
			}
			catch (SqlException ex)
			{
				logger.LogError(ex, "Retrieving list of StockItems");

				return this.StatusCode(StatusCodes.Status500InternalServerError);
			}

			return this.Ok(response);
		}
	}
}

This sample controller method returns a small number of records (approximate 230) in one request so performance is unlikely to be a consideration. A controller method which returns many (1000s or even 10000s) records could cause performance and scalability issues. In a future post I will add pagination and then do some stress testing of the application to compare the different implementations.